Identity Based Habits 101 – How to Build a Habit Forever

More Questions than Answers by An Untrained Eye

The best way to form a lasting habit is to completely re-imagine your identity.

Anyone who’s ever tried to build a new habit from scratch knows – change is difficult.

Think about it, how many times have you gotten really fired up about wanting to start something new, whether it was a new exercise program, studying a second language, writing a book or even just getting in the habit of stretching a little each morning?

As fired up as you were, how long until that initial motivation wore off and you were back to your old habits of not working out, studying, writing or whatever? For most people it’s usually not long at all. So what’s the trick to making a new habit stick if being really pumped about it initially isn’t enough?

The use of identity based habits.

What are identity based habits?

I’ve written about using identity based habits to achieve goals in the past, but in case you aren’t familiar with them the basic idea is that you can best solidify a habit by becoming the kind of person who would perform that action habitually.

Ok, that may actually sound more confusing – here’s how it works.

Without getting too much into discussions of free will, determinism and compatibilism, essentially all of your thoughts and decisions arise out of processes that begin unconsciously. In other words, while it may feel like you consciously decided to have a cup of coffee this morning in reality that decision was made well before you were aware of it by a long chain of neurological and causative factors.

In fact, studies have been done where researches hooked participants up to brain scanners and could accurately predict what the people were going to do when left alone in a room (for example, pick up a magazine, walk around, etc.) several moments before that person was aware they were going to do it. This was possible because regions of the brain the participants weren’t consciously aware of fired well before they had the ‘conscious decision’ to do what they were going to do.

Alright, so that’s kind of freaky – but what does it have to do with building habits?

Well what that demonstrates is that whether you like it or not, your decisions and behaviors really are largely if not entirely dictated by factors that exist outside of or independent of your conscious mind. In other words if you’re trying to form a new habit by sheer willpower alone, you’re already setting yourself up in a losing battle – or at least a battle over which you have very little control over the outcome.

Rather than just throw the dice and hope you roll high enough to form the habit (some D&D player somewhere is reading this and nodding), using identity based habits lets you rig the dice in your favor.

An identity based habit is formed by acting like the person you want to be until you actually become them. So, for example, if you’re currently overweight and want to get into the habit of lifting weights three times per week you would begin to think of yourself as ‘a weightlifter’ or maybe ‘an athlete’ – at the very least as ‘a fit person’.

Then, gradually, you would set yourself up to really live like you were already ‘a fit person’. You would do whatever things in your mind ‘a fit person’ does, maybe read about lifting and nutrition, talk about it with other people, and (most importantly in this case) lift regularly. Before long it become self-reinforcing and the new parts of your identity that you’ve been ‘faking’ would become part of your real identity.

In other words, by thinking of yourself as ‘a fit person’ and strongly identifying as such it becomes contrary to your nature to not go lift. Before long it will get to the point where it will feel strange to not do the very thing you’ve been struggling to make habitual.

This rigs the system by changing the environment, background causes and subconscious neurological factors that determine our choices before we are aware of them. Put simply, you’re making it hard to lose by playing a winnable game.

How to Establish Identity Based Habits

You may at this point be saying, “Ok, that makes sense, but how in the world do I just change my identity? Isn’t that as hard as changing my habits in the first place?”

Not quite as difficult, but to be fair there is some truth to it – suggesting that you should wake up tomorrow and just decide to have an entirely new identity is a lot like suggesting to someone suffering from depression to decide to cheer up – it’s not going to be that easy.

The best ways to make the transition process easier are by playing pretend and using small winnable goals to prove to yourself that you really are the kind of person who you want to be. We’ll look at playing pretend first.

Remember being young and playing make-believe? Well if you can’t try really hard because that’s exactly what we’re going to use to get your new habits to stick.

Rather than try to force yourself to genuinely believe right off the bat that you are now, say, ‘a person who can speak four languages’ rather than someone who speaks one pretend to be that person. Fake it ’til you make it, as the saying goes.

This works because in the end it doesn’t really matter if you believe it, as long as you pretend well enough to do the things the person you want to be would do, then eventually you’ll wake up one morning as that person. Using the above as an example, if you pretend like you’re the person who learns languages easily and do all the things that you imagine that kind of person would do (study up on target languages, read news in those languages, watch TV in those languages, etc.) than eventually you’ll have done so much of that you will actually be the kind of person who does those things – see how that works?

The other good way to ease into it is by using small goals as ways to prove to yourself that you can actually be the person you want to be.

By small goals I mean significant things that are still small enough to accomplish without much trouble. For example, if you want to redefine yourself as a writer you don’t want to shoot for writing a book in a week – that’s just setting yourself up to fail at which point you’ll doubt that self-image. Instead you would pick something like writing 500 words everyday. That’s maybe half a page or so.

That type of goal is achievable enough that you really have no excuse not to do it. No matter how busy you are you have the ten minutes or so per day necessary to write half a page worth of something. After a couple weeks, when you look back at all you’ve written, you can say to yourself, “Hey, look at all this I’ve accomplished. I guess I really am a writer!” Then you can kick it up a notch to 1,000 words per day or whatever the next step would be in solidifying that self-image.

Just like with faking it, before long you’ll find it just feels wrong to not write something each day. After all, you’re a writer and that’s what writer’s do. When you get to that point – congratulations, you’ve just formed a lifelong habit.

The best results will always come from not focusing on the end goal or result (I want to be fit) but instead by focusing on embracing and internalizing the process itself (I want to be the kind of person who trains regularly and eats right).

Have you ever tried to change your self-identity in order to better solidify or create a habit? How did it go? Do you have any other advice for other people who would like to try? Share it with us in the comments!

Photo Credit: An Untrained Eye

The Epic Guide to Becoming Healthy and Achieving Your Fitness Goals

Summer Lovin' by Caro Wallis

If you’re just starting out on the journey to change your health for the better – whether by shedding excess fat, gaining muscle or both – or have already begun but not found any success, the sheer volume of information out there on what to do can be staggering and contradictory. This is particularly frustrating when you don’t have any good way to sort out the good advice from the bad. We decided to help take some of that confusion away by condensing our tested and proven methods into one easy to digest guide.

This is a guide to our philosophy for attaining epic health and fitness. Everyone should be healthy and fit, and everyone can do it.

Fat loss is 80% diet, 20% exercise.

Which is why 80% of this article is about what you should focus on eating, and how you should eat it. Only a small portion is devoted to exercise. The how you should eat part of the guide is half our philosophy on what a healthy diet is followed by our interpretation of Leangains, a method of body recomposition we’ve found incredibly useful.

Who this guide is for: This guide is for beginners. This guide is for all the average people out there who want to be healthy and look good naked. This is for those who have tried so hard to get healthy and in the shape they want but have not found any success yet and are frustrated. This is for people who want to get to and maintain a healthy weight and reasonable level of fitness that will keep them healthy and enable them to do pretty much whatever they want.

This is a guide to the foundations of a healthy diet and how to successfully attain a healthy weight while getting stronger. Yes, having lean strong muscles is a basic part of being healthy and everyone should have a basic level of strength. Although we do provide a little bit of extra information for those looking to get larger muscles for aesthetic purposes as well.

We know this is is a lot of information, but we have tried to present it in a way that is simple, easy to understand and easy to follow so anyone can do it.

Who this guide is NOT for: If you are a professional athlete, this obviously is not for you – you’ll have needs and requirements well out of the scope of this article. If you generally don’t care about your health, looking good naked or being able to maintain physical activity this is also not for you.

We highly suggest you give this a read and if you are willing to try it, spend a little time doing the prep (figuring out what and how much to eat, making a grocery list, etc.) and then sticking to it for at least a month but ideally two. After the end of your first successful month, go over again and assess your progress and adjust as necessary. Remember that fat loss takes time, and health is a lifelong commitment. Starting out with small goals will help you get the ball rolling. Also, if something isn’t clear or you have a question or comment, please let us know below (or send us an email.)

Table of Contents:

Part I. What To Eat

Food should make you more healthy, not less. Sure, you can get lean eating twinkies all day – people have done this before – but what’s the point of attaining your ideal look if you’re risking a heart attack any day?

While the calories-in-calories-out philosophy works fairly well, it cannot account for health – things such as hormone balance, blood pressure, cholesterol, etc. Food is for fuel – a car has a set amount that it needs in order to get from point A to point B. If it doesn’t have enough, it will burn up its energy and die part way. If it has too much, it stores the excess for the future.

The human body is similar, we burn up both what we eat and the stored fat on our bodies to have the energy to do our daily activities – and if we eat too much that excess will be stored away for later. However, whether or not you put in enough is just as important as the type of fuel you use. If you put the wrong kind of fuel in your engine it’ll have issues and break down eventually – the same goes for our bodies. Attaining health, looking good naked and being able to perform your favorite activities don’t have to be mutually exclusive.

Another way to look at it is with money. If you have an excess then we tend to store it for use later. If you don’t have enough money, you’ll always be stressed out, struggling every day and generally miserable. Similarly, if we eat more calories than we need, it gets stored as fat. If we don’t eat enough, we’ll use up all that fat we have stored for energy.

How you spend your money can have a big effect on your happiness – if you first pay your bills and use the leftover for things you enjoy or like, you’ll be a debt-free happy person. If you spend too much on things you like and not enough to pay your bills, eventually you’ll wind up in a tough financial spot (and if you combine this with not having enough to begin with, then you are really in trouble!) If you spend your caloric budget on junk food, while you’ll be happy that happiness will soon be overshadowed by health problems. Having a treat once in a while certainly won’t hurt you – but it needs to not be the majority of your calories. I could make a connection between investing and building strength but I’ll spare you that one.

Eat Real Food

The basis of a healthy diet is simple – eat real food. Base the majority of your diet on quality, real, unprocessed foods like meats, vegetables and fruits along with some healthy fats. Keep in mind that foods higher in fats like nuts and oils are also higher calorie and really easy to over eat, so make sure you keep it in check.

Choosing whole foods that are nutrient dense and that were raised, fed and grown properly gives you a strong foundation from which to start – they’ll keep you healthy and satiated and support most basic activity. Using these as the basis of your diet you can then further tweak what and how much you eat to help you reach and maintain your goals. Eating quality ingredients from local, sustainable farms (think grassfed beef, sustainable farming practices, etc) is ideal but if your budget won’t allow, just do your best.

Also, eat more vegetables. Seriously. The majority of people don’t eat enough vegetables.

Now, you may have noticed that we left a lot of foods out – like processed foods, grains, legumes and dairy. In the case of grains, legumes and dairy we leave them out because they aren’t universally tolerable like lettuce and chicken are. Everyone is different – from metabolisms, preferences to evolution – there is no single perfect diet. Since some may have food intolerances we obviously aren’t going to tell those people to eat food they can’t handle.

If you suspect you may have a food intolerance or are just curious, at some point try going without a particular food for at least 30 days and then adding it back in (one at a time if you do multiple) about a week apart and seeing how you feel, along with the necessary tests from your doctor. If there don’t seem to be any negative effects like irritable gut, low energy, acne, etc. then keep on eating. If you do notice negative effects though simply limit your intake to whatever you are comfortable with.

Another big reason why we suggest people leave these things out is because we’ve seen too many who base their diets on bread, pasta, pizza, processed meats and cheeses while failing to know how to make healthy, vegetable-filled meals. Grains, dairy and legumes can be a part of a healthy diet, but they shouldn’t be the basis of your diet if you are trying to lose fat. Additionally, we give preference to lean proteins as they are have a high satiety level and we love vegetables as they are nutrient dense while not being calorie-dense, so you can eat a lot and by the end of the day feel full and well-fed. Oats, rice, beans and the like are tasty, but try to give yourself a bit more variety.

Know how food affects you. As I keep saying, we all have different needs and reactions to various foods, so how your diet is actually composed (how many fats, sugars, carbs, dairy, etc.) really needs to be based upon how they make you feel. For example, I absolutely love dairy-based foods like the sauces in many Indian foods, but it makes me feel bloated and horrible and I get acne – therefore I only eat it once in a while but I’m fully aware how I’ll feel later.

The same is true if you are trying to gain or lose weight – grains like bread and pasta, for example, just don’t fill me. They make me feel ravenously hungry and I wind up eating a lot of calories on that day. If I wanted to lose fat, eating this way every day probably isn’t a good idea. If I wanted to gain, then it would be a great idea. I’ve also known people who have the complete opposite reaction – bread and pasta fill them up completely and they don’t eat much all day. Again, we are all different so experiment.

Processed foods are a separate dirty little beast all of their own. They’re tasty, addictive and they are designed to be that way. Processed foods are not only unhealthy because of their ridiculously high caloric content and lack of nutritional content, but also because they’ve been designed by scientists who know how to make these processed foods addictive and how to trick your brain into thinking it’s not full and wanting more. They’re empty calories, plain and simple, and should be controlled.

Don’t drink your calories either. Things like sodas, shakes and smoothies make it really easy to consume excessive calories and de-rail your progress. Unless you’re trying to bulk or are having a protein shake to hit your macro-nutrient targets, just don’t do it. Choose foods that are nutrient-dense and that have high satiety factors (like steak or chicken) to stay full and happy. If you’re thirsty, drink water or unsweetened iced tea.

We’re not saying you need to eat perfect 100% of the time. As long as you eat healthy 80-90% of the time, the little bit of bad food that you eat won’t make a difference to your overall health. Experiment to find a sustainable balance that you are happy with.

Finally, remember that these are just some loose rules – there’s no single perfect diet for everyone. This will get you started and it is up to you to tailor it to your preferences, needs and lifestyle.

Thou Shall Not Demonize any Food or Macro-Nutrient

Say it with me: Fat is not evil. Carbohydrates are not evil. No food is evil. Except durian.

I kid, I kid.

Seriously though, you’ll hear us say this again and again: everyone is different. Some people are able to tolerate foods that others aren’t able to. Some people are able to eat more than others. Eating fat won’t make you fat, and eating carbohydrates won’t make you fat either. Eating too much of anything while also being inactive makes you fat and unhealthy. The goal here is to craft a diet that is tailored to your preferences and goals, one that is based primarily on healthy foods while also allowing the occasional treat. This is sensible, not extreme.

Your body needs fat. Your body also needs carbohydrates and protein. The key is eating the right amount for you and focusing first on getting them from good sources. Especially if losing fat is your goal, try to get your carbohydrates from primarily vegetables. It’ll be hard because many require that you eat a high volume – but this is wonderful because you’re guaranteed to feel full afterward. Don’t be afraid of fats either – butter, olive oil and fatty meats are delicious and can be beneficial in the right amounts.

Hormones also play an important part of fat loss and overall health, so by eating nutritious food, exercising and working to keep your stress down you are setting yourself up for success. Don’t forget to treat yourself once in a while.

Stress can be a huge problem when dieting – it not only makes you miserable but can negatively effect your waistline and health, so please try to avoid it however works best for you. If you have a day where you slip – don’t worry about it. Accept it and move on. Don’t let a bad day derail you from success.

Most importantly of all…

Eat For Your Goals

This is just plain good sense. If you want to lose weight eating a lot of high-calorie foods will have the opposite effect. If you want to gain strength, then eating everything but protein is going to slow you down.

Part II. How to Eat For Your Goals

Not everyone can or should eat the same way as anyone else, however there are some basic principles that can serve as great starting points to get you on the right track to losing fat, looking good naked, getting stronger or whatever your goal may be.

Our favorite method, and the one that we’ve personally had great success with, is Leangains. Leangains, the brainchild of Martin Berkhan, is made up of three main components: intermittent fasting, a diet protocol and training. The diet is tweaked to match and support training so you can get leaner, maintain or even bulk, while burning off any excess fat. It works by keeping protein high on all days, and cycling higher carb/higher fat days based upon whether it’s a training or rest day. Not only is Leangains simple and effective, but it’s also easily tailor-able for varying goals.

An Introduction to Intermittent Fasting

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is a method of alternating periods of being in a fasted-state, and a fed-state. You could also call it Intermittent Feeding if you find that a more friendly term.

There are many IF protocols, the most famous likely being Brad Pilon’s Eat STOP Eat, all with varying fasting/non-fasting schedules. This doesn’t need to be complicated – Leangains is essentially just skipping breakfast.

The Leangains IF protocol is 16 hours of fasting and 8 hours of feeding. During the fasting period, consume no calories or food. Coffee, tea and obviously water are fine, but no soda and nothing to eat. If you really must, a small spoon of milk in your coffee or a small amount of sugar free gum shouldn’t mess up your progress. During the feeding period, eat at whatever frequency you like (2-3 meals is most common.)

Your Schedule: 16/8

Pick an 8-hour window during the day of when you want to eat and don’t eat outside of that. How you set up your fasting schedule will ultimately be up to you and your lifestyle. For example, if you like to go out to eat on Friday nights with your friends you’d be better off skipping breakfast in order to allow your feeding window to be open later. Like with what you eat, don’t obsess over being perfect about your fasting schedule. As long as you stick to it 80-90% of the time, you’re on track.

A small note for women: Martin has noted that women tend to do better on a 14 hour fast than they do a 16 hour fast, so if you’re female feel free to play around with your fasting time.

An example: For us, we like to eat out and are more willing to skip breakfast than we are dinner, so our feeding window is usually around noon-8:00 p.m. Yes, you can sleep during your fasting phase (convenience FTW!)

Why fast in the First Place?

Skipping a meal may sound odd but there are real benefits to doing this as opposed to only counting calories. We’ll devote a full post to the finer points of fasting and what it does, how and why it’s something you should consider doing and its many benefits beyond aiding fat loss. But for the purposes of this guide there are two big things fasting does that helps burn fat:

Hunger Regulation: Fasting and restricting your eating hours causes the hunger hormone Ghrelin to get used to the new schedule and reduces hunger and cravings throughout the day. This is particularly beneficial for those looking to lose fat since hunger and cravings can sabotage progress. Don’t confuse this with starving – you’ll still eat the same amount of calories in a day, just in a more controlled time frame.

Greater Time Spent Burning Fat: There are two things your body uses for energy; fat and glycogen. After a meal your body switches to using its glycogen stores from the carbohydrates you’ve eaten for energy. Gradually, your body will switch from glycogen to body fat for energy as the glycogen isn’t being replenished. So, by increasing the time you spend not eating you’ll be spending more time burning up that fat.

Meal Composition: Macro-Math

The second main portion of the Leangains method is the rules about how your diet is composed – or macro-nutrient portions. On Leangains you’ll be doing a workout (some type of resistance work, ideally barbell but bodyweight or dumbbell workouts are fine too) three days a week, so on those three days you’ll eat a higher number of calories than on your four rest days. Protein will be high throughout the week but on training days you’ll consume higher carbohydrates and less fat, while on rest days you’ll eat lower carb but higher fat.

Now, that’s just the basics of it. Martin gives some more specifics on the diet itself but not much – although you can hire him to guide you directly (which, if you can afford it and can get a hold of him, is almost assuredly worth it.) You could stop there but it’s extremely useful to go through the various numbers you’ll be targeting in your diet. Based upon pouring over pages of information on the topic along with our own experience following Leangains, we’ve put together this guide to help you figure out your target calories and macros.

Now we’ll have to break out some formulas to help you figure out your ideal starting point. First off we’ll need to get an estimation of your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), then adjust for activity, then finally figure out target intake based upon your goals.

We highly suggest you go through and do this yourself, for the sake of having more control and insight into how things work. However, if this proves to be a barrier to entry, open up 1percentedge.com/ifcalc in a new tab and go through both the rest of this and it together. Most calculators are really terrible, but this one is relatively accurate and easy to use.

Estimate Your BMR

First we figure out your BMR since that is how many calories you burn just being alive. The best way to have this tested is to go to a facility and run tests, but that can be expensive so we use a formula to get a rough estimate of your BMR.

Mifflin St. Jeor BMR Equation

Men: BMR = (10 x weight in kg) + (6.25 x height in cm) – (5 x age in years) + 5

Women: BMR = (10 x weight in kg) + (6.25 x height in cm) – (5 x age in years) – 161

OR:

Harris-Benedict BMR Equation

Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 x weight in kg) + (5 x height in cm) – (6.8 x age in years)

Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 x weight in kg) + (1.8 x height in cm) – (4.7 x age in years)

If you know roughly your body fat percentage then the Katch-McArdle BMR formula would work better, since the above two don’t take into account body fat % which, if you are on one of the two extremes, can cause problems in calculating.

Katch-McArdle BMR Equation

BMR (men and women) = 370 + (21.6 X lean mass in kg)

Curious to know more about how BMR equations work? Nerd out on the Wikipedia article for BMR estimation formulas – it’s really interesting if you are into that sort of thing.

Estimate Your TDEE

Secondly, we need to adjust the calories you found with the BMR estimation to reflect activity levels. There’s a lot that can go wrong in this element, usually via activity multipliers being terrible setting calories too high. Our suggestion is to guess a little low and if you find you are low on energy then you can recalculate with a higher activity multiplier. So, use caution and adjust as necessary. Pick a conservative activity multiplier to find your estimated Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE).

To get you started, here’s a very general list of multipliers:

  • Sedentary = BMR x 1.2
  • Exercise 3x/week = BMR x 1.375
  • Exercise 4x/week = BMR x 1.4187
  • Exercise 5x/week = BMR x 1.4625
  • Exercise 6x/week = BMR x 1.55
  • Exercise Every Day = BMR x 1.6375
  • Exercise Twice Daily or Intense Daily Exercise = BMR x 1.725

Losing Fat, Getting Stronger or Bulking Up: How to Match Your Calories With Your Goals

Third on the list is to match your eating with your goals. How you set up your calories and macros are highly dependent upon your goals. By now you should know how many calories you burn sitting around, along with your estimated TDEE. If you stick to eating just this number of calories per day, your weight should stay about the same. But if you’re still reading this, I’m willing to bet staying the same isn’t what you want to do. This is going to require a bit more math, but not much.

Now you need to choose between one of three main categories: Cutting, Recomposition or Bulking. These can certainly be further broken up, but for simplicity/beginner’s sake we’re going to just focus on these three.

Cutting: 90% of people will want to cut first. If you are somewhere from significant excess body fat to I-can-see-faint-ab-lines you will want to start with a cut. Keeping protein high while on the cut will ensure that you maintain (and often, gain) muscle while getting rid of the excess fat. You’ll want to maintain/gain as this will give you not only a significant hormonal advantage but having lean, strong muscles will keep you healthier overall (yes, ladies, you’ll get stronger. But don’t worry, you won’t become a body builder unless you set out to become one.)

To achieve a cut, you’ll need your calories overall for the week to be less than your maintenance calories. To achieve this you’ll want to consume between +10% to -10% calories on your workout days and between -20% to -35% on a rest day. If your maintenance is 2,000 kCalories per day then you are looking at 1,800-2,200 kCal on workout days and 1,600-1,300 on your rest days. Obviously, the lower you go the faster you’ll cut, but be careful doing this as going too low can damage your metabolism and cause unnecessary stress on your body, which will make you hold/gain fat, not lose. This is why it’s important to focus first on consuming nutrient-dense foods that have a high level of satiety since they will keep you feeling full longer.

If you are very overweight, as long as you keep your protein high on both days you can get away with eating at a deficit on both days, however leaner people will want to eat at least at maintenance on a workout day. If you feel tired on your workout days, you’re probably eating too little on your rest days and you’ll have to up your rest day calories a bit (make sure you are eating enough fats too.) Cutting within these ranges will ensure that you are strong and getting enough food. Do not cut more than -35%

Recomposition: If you can just see your abs but want to get into the really low body fat percent ranges, and to add strength and/or bulk while doing it, you’ll want to do a recomposition.

For the standard Martin-approved recomposition, go for +20%kCal on a workout day and -20%kCal on rest days. If your maintenance is 2,000 kCal/day then this would be 2,400 kCal you’d need to eat on a workout day and 1,600 kCal you can eat on a rest day.

Bulking: If you are lean and looking to add mass (aka make your muscles bigger) then you’d want to bulk. If you aren’t already lean, do a cut or recomposition for a bit to get down to visible abs first. Once you’re there, come back here.

There? Okay, to build muscle mass you need to combine a proper diet and training. For the purposes of this article, we’ll only focus on diet. Building muscle requires calories so on days that you exercise you will want to eat in excess up to 40%. On rest days, you’ll want to shoot for a -10% deficit, or just enough under to burn off any excess fat you may have gained from eating over on training days.

If you eat more carbohydrates than you use to replace your depleted glycogen, your body will store those excess carbs as fat. The key, as with the other two, will be to track your progress consistently and if necessary tweak your macros and percent over/under.

For anyone familiar with the bodybuilder/bulking type diet, you’ll notice that this is different from the common approach of cycling between “eat ALL THE THINGS!” for a season and then cutting later. Going about adding mass Leangains-style will go slower, undoubtedly, BUT you will look great and keep your visible muscle the entire time.

Protein, Carbs and Fat: Your Macro Nutrient Targets

Next and fourth, is to figure out your macro-nutrient targets. Now we get to figure out how much protein, carbohydrates and fats you’ll be shooting for every day. You may have seen this before, such as in the Zone diet’s “magic” 40/30/30 split. The point is not to get too obsessive and to try out a few different splits to figure out what you do best at. Need I say it again – everyone is different.

These numbers will change as your body changes so it is good to take some time every 2-4 weeks to reassess where you are and adjust as necessary.

Protein: Protein needs to be kept high on both days not just for satiety but also to ensure that you don’t lose any muscle. All too commonly do people allow this to slip and it not only makes them weaker, but it makes fat loss much harder To maintain, you’ll need to have around 1-1.5 grams of protein per pound of lean body mass (LBM) or, in metric, around 2.2-3.3 grams of protein per kg of lean body mass.

Depending upon personal preference, how significant of a cut you’re going for and how much you need to feel full you can eat within this range but don’t go any lower so as to preserve your muscle. As far as your lean body mass goes – there are very few ways to accurately (much less afford-ably) measure your body fat percentage, so just take a guess and then subtract your estimated body fat percent from your total weight. To measure your body fat percent, there are ways to visually guess, scales that measure via electrical impedance, calipers and all sorts of other tools. Pick the one that you are able to do and use that, while keeping in mind that it’s not 100% accurate but that being perfect doesn’t really matter either.

Fats: Here’s where we get a bit more freedom – how much fats and carbs you eat will largely depend upon your lifestyle. As mentioned above, you’ll want to have your fats lower on a workout day and higher on a rest day. Low, most of the time, will be somewhere between 20-50 grams of fat. For your higher days, you can go up to double. Try it out for a while and adjust as necessary. If you are very active, doing double might restrict your carbs too much and you’ll want to lower it. However, for people who literally will only workout on the three workout days, double should be just fine (but, again, adjust as you feel necessary for satiety and performance.)

If ratios are more your thing, try going for somewhere around a 25/75-75/25 fat/carb split (doesn’t have to be exact) on workout and rest days respectively. Or, you can go 25/75 on a workout day and 50/50 on a rest day. Try it out for a few weeks then tweak as necessary.

Finally, please don’t be fat-phobic. Don’t be carb-phobic either, for that matter. Both macro-nutrients are necessary for hormonal regulation and for performance. Just make sure you are getting your fats primarily from good sources – olive oil, avocados, coconut oil, grassfed butter, steak, fish, etc. and you’ll be full, healthy and happy.

Carbohydrates: Again, you have a lot of room to play with how many carbohydrates you get. The more active you are, the more carbohydrates you should be getting. To begin, just fill up however many calories you have left with them and adjust after a few weeks if/as necessary.

To figure out how much this really means, you’ll have to figure out how much calories have been used up already by protein and fats, then how much the rest of those calories are in carbs. A single gram of protein is roughly 4 kCal, 1 gram of fat is roughly 9 kCal, and 1 gram of carbs is roughly 4 kCal.

I know this was a lot of information all at once, so I’ll give you two examples to illustrate.

Macro Calculation Examples

Takeshi

Takeshi is at 190lbs and 18% body fat – so not really overweight but not super lean either – and burns 2,300 kCal. He chooses to recomp at +20/-20%. So his target calories are 2,760 on a workout day and 1,840 on a rest day.

His target protein, at 1.5/lb lbm, would be 234g/day. He goes easy and does 30g fat on a workout day and 60g fat on a rest day. After calculating the calories used up by protein and fats, then subtracting that number from his overall daily caloric allowance, he gets 1,553 calories he can use for carbs on a workout day and 363 calories he can spend on carbs on a rest day, or 388g and 90g carbs.

Workout Day: 2,760 kCal = 234g protein, 30g fat and 388g carbs

Rest Day: 1,840 kCal = 234g protein, 60g fat and 90g carbs

All he has to do next is pick foods that fit his macros, plan his workouts, and get to it.

Mary

Next we have Mary, a 5’7” 160lb girl at around 32% body fat – in other words she’s average height and has a spare tire around her belly. She needs to cut, first and foremost. We find from the equation that her BMR is around 1,867, and since she has a desk job her estimated TDEE is around 2,000. She wants to cut relatively quickly so she opts for a -35%/0% range: 1,300 kCal on a rest day and 2,000 kCal on a workout day.

She opts for a 1.5x lbm protein target as well, which comes out to around 165g of protein per day. She also takes the easy route of 30/60 grams of fat on workout and rest days respectively. This leaves her with 266 grams of carbs on a workout day and 24 grams on a rest day.

Workout Day: 2,000 kCal = 165g protein, 30g fat, 266g carbs

Rest Day: 1,300 kCal = 165g protein, 60g fat, 24g carbs

Making a Meal Plan

Like with Takeshi, all she has to do now is prepare her kitchen and fill it with foods that fit her macros. Within the Leangains community lots of people love to use the phrase “if it fits your macros” (IIFYM) meaning that you can eat anything you like and still drop the body fat and build strength. This is completely true, however we caution against doing this too much – base the bulk of your meals on foods that will fill you and know that having something “bad” once in a while won’t hurt you so long as you can keep it within your macros, and if you know that you won’t still be hungry afterward.

To help you make your meal plan, play around on Swole.me and NutritionData.com in addition to finding a calorie/nutrition tracker that you like most. We like Daily Burn Tracker and MyFitnessPal personally. Play around adding in various different foods and see what kinds of combinations work for you. Keep your food simple for the first few weeks to a month to make tracking as easy as possible until you’ve gotten the hang of it.

Training

Exercise is an important part of health and fat loss which, like your diet, will depend on your goals. Everyone should at least do some kind of resistance training. Both men and women should make lifting heavy things a part of their workout routine as the health benefits of doing so are numerous and ridiculously worth it. This is another reason why we like Leangains – a fundamental part of it is lifting heavy things 3 times a week, for no more than one hour per session.

Exactly how much and what kind of exercise you get depends on your goals and lifestyle, but at the very minimum you can do 3 sessions a week of lifting heavy things – they don’t even need to be an hour each. An easy walk on your rest days, preferably before your first meal, would greatly benefit you from a hormonal advantage but is not necessary. Just remember that the more active you are the more calories you’ll need to intake to sustain them.

For the lifting heavy things requirement – how you go about it depends on what equipment available to you such as barbells, dumbbells, kettlebells, or your own body weight. There are lots of programs out there that are excellent, but each are for different sets of goals.

Focus First On Compound Exercises

The key feature of your workouts will be compound movements – or exercises that utilize multiple muscle groups to complete. Compound exercises can be though of as working the essential muscles to make you stronger and more capable. They’re also sometimes referred to as the “functional exercises” since they work what you need to do very basic movements: climbing, picking up things, moving things, carrying things, so on and so forth.

So, base your workouts on compound movements along with accessory exercises as needed/desired. If barbells are available to you do squats, bench presses, overhead presses, rows and deadlifts. If you can only do bodyweight exercises then do squats, push ups, dips, pull-ups (inverted rows if you cannot do pull-ups yet) and glute-ham raises. In the beginning you might do most of these exercises on the same day, but as you get stronger and the weights get heavier you will want to have an A/B routine where you switch between exercises each session.

Your resistance workout should take anywhere from 30-60 minutes, and you should only do it three times a week. That’s 1.5-3 hours per week, you can find that much time to devote to making yourself stronger, better and more awesome. Experiment and find a routine you enjoy.

Pick The Right Program

If you can do barbell workouts, we highly recommend getting the book Starting Strength by Mark Rippetoe as he is the master on form and technique. There’s also a Starting Strength Wiki which has videos and breakdowns of the program and exercises.

Pavel Tsatsouline is a big proponent of using kettlebells to get a full body workout and attain strong, lean muscles. If kettlebells are your thing we suggest checking out his book Enter The Kettlebell.

Bodyweight exercises are by far the most accessible – everyone has a body they can work with! Additionally, everyone should know some basic bodyweight exercises so that they can stay fit while traveling and not have to suffer the horrors that are hotel workout rooms. Some excellent bodyweight programs to get you started are You Are Your Own Gym by Mark Lauren, Convict Conditioning by Paul Wade, and The Naked Warrior by Pavel Tsatsouline. Additionally, we’ve posted several great workouts here as well.

Now, you may have noticed that we didn’t separate these workouts by gender – this is because both genders should do compound movements! We’ve outline before why women should lift weights too, so we won’t get into that here. Just know that lifting gives both men and women metabolic and hormonal boosts, increases various health factors and builds the muscles many of us find oh-so-attractive. Wink, wink.

Final Notes on Diet & Training

Again, we want to reiterate that this is a loose guide for beginners. This is your starting point.

For the first few months, keep everything as simple as possible. Stock up your kitchen with good food and buy a digital food scale (they are $15-$20 on Amazon.) Track your foods meticulously for the first month or so; by the end of the month you will be a pro at guesstimating and will be able to do so even when eating out.

Most importantly, don’t over-think this. This is not a perfect science and there are many variables here, so focus on trying to stick to it as much as you can, and don’t worry about the little things.

Again, here are your priorities:

  • Eat only within an 8-hour window every day, try to keep it consistent.
  • Resistance training at least 3 times a week.
  • Eat more on workout days, less on non-workout days.
  • Keep your protein consumption high every day.
  • On a workout day, eat more carbs and keep your fat intake low.
  • On a rest day, eat less carbs and more fats.
  • Cardio is generally unnecessary, but a walk before you break your fast on rest days is beneficial.
  • If you are very active and want to/must do cardio, make sure to up your food intake so your deficit is not too low.

Part III. How To Succeed

Sticking to any diet and exercise plan can be a challenge, which is why we want to help you succeed. The best way to stick to a plan is to track smart, remove barriers and to have ambitious but realistic goals.

Track Smart

How to Measure Progress the Smart Way

First of all, let’s stop saying “lose weight” because what you really want to do is lose fat, right? You can lose weight by dropping muscle and/or fat, and losing muscle can cause serious problems so you shouldn’t want to do that. If you stick to this plan, you will likely get stronger and thus will build some amount of muscle. Furthermore, your weight can fluctuate wildly day-to-day and even throughout the day depending on what you’ve eaten. Therefore, stop worrying about the number on the scale.

There is no perfect way to track your fat loss and muscle gain, but there are two ways you can easily do at home that should help immensely – the best part is that you likely won’t need to buy anything!

To track your progress, pick a day and time each week to take some pictures of yourself and measure various points on your body. Measure around the same place on your biceps, chest, waist, hips and thighs. Use these numbers to track total fat loss and to ensure that your muscles either stay the same or get larger (depending on your goals.)

What Gets Measured, Gets Managed

Tracking your diet and workouts can be a huge pain in the butt, which is why we like to use apps to our advantage. The best apps are not only easy to use but are accessible everywhere – from smartphones to the Internet. Our favorite apps for logging food are Daily Burn Tracker and MyFitnessPal, but experiment to find the one that you find easiest to use. Once you start using it, log every single thing that goes in your mouth with the one possible exception being things like green vegetables, which pretty much have no calories. Apps like MyFitnessPal also track your measurements for you, so it’s a handy all-in-one app. One word of caution: these apps tend to ridiculously over-estimate calories burned through exercise so don’t track them there. Instead, use…

Fitocracy! Logging your workouts is beneficial not only to track progress, but also the fact that seeing this progress can help keep you motivated to continue. Fitocracy is our favorite app to log workouts as it has a fun gaming element to it (get ALL the achievements!) but also has a supportive community that has built up around it. There is also a handy timeline overview option to see how far you’ve come on your various exercises. Log your workouts, stay motived, learn from others and eventually help others learn.

Remove Barriers

Remove barriers to make it easier to stick to your plan and achieve your goals. A lot of this will be individual as barriers can vary widely between different lifestyles. Some of the most common barriers are not having a meal plan, not having a ready kitchen, and a lack of planning ahead when dining out.

Have a Meal Plan

Spend some time playing around on your diet tracker or, as we mentioned above, on websites like Swole.me. Taking half an hour to figure out how much chicken, potatoes, rice, oats, beef and fish it takes to hit your macros seems small in comparison to how much you have to gain by doing it and being able to stick to the plan.

Prepare Your Kitchen

You can prep your kitchen a couple of ways – first by filling it with the foods determined by your meal plan but also by having plenty of vegetables like lettuce and carrots to have on hand in case you get hungry but are at your limit on calories. Having these things on hand not only helps you eat more nutritiously, but also helps deal with hunger if you have trouble with it.

Make sure that the foods you choose to stock up on are limited and sustainable – or foods that you enjoy and won’t mind eating a lot of. From a nutritional standpoint variety is better, however the opposite is true from an adherence standpoint. Don’t give yourself too much to track, but don’t make yourself miserable.

Another way you can prepare is by having a proper food scale, as noted above. Unless you have a lot of experience in working with food, being able to guess how much you are actually eating can be difficult and very inaccurate. A good food scale is only $15-$20 – if you are serious about being lean and healthy you’ll find a way to get one. A good scale also has the dual benefit of being much more accurate than food scales when cooking (especially baking), however that’s a chemistry lesson for another day.

Plan Ahead When Eating Out

Generally you can get by as long as you stick to the basics of the diet – if you worked out that day pick a lean meat with a carbohydrate and vegetables. If a rest day, pick a fattier cut with vegetables and skip the carbs. Use your best judgment and don’t be afraid to politely ask your waiter or waitress questions or for substitutions.

If you know where you are going out in advance, Google the restaurant name plus “nutrition” and see if the venue has posted the nutritional information of their items (large chains are required to do this in the United States, however small restaurants are not and are less likely to have this information posted.) This takes the guesswork out and might actually surprise you as far as how high-calorie dining out can be.

Set Ambitious, But Realistic Goals

Finally, by having realistic goals you are promoting your own success and by being ambitious about those goals you are challenging yourself to work harder to achieve them. Start by picking a smart deficit, eating primarily real, whole foods and plan for long-term success.

Pick A Smart Deficit

To lose a pound of fat, the average person needs to burn around 3,500 kCal. Using the Leangains style of calorie management, you can lose anywhere from .5 to 2 pounds a week safely while keeping your sanity. Some people may not be able to handle the lower calorie restrictions to lose faster, and trying to do it makes them crazy. That’s a diet that is unsustainable and bound to fail – so be realistic with yourself as far as how much you are really willing to cut.

Eat Real, Whole Foods

I’ll say it as many times as I need to, choose first and foremost healthy foods and allow yourself a small amount of room for “everything else.” Unhealthy foods are more often than not high calorie and not very filling. While healthier foods like chicken and sweet potato are low calorie and very filling. Most of us aren’t really happy being hungry, so choose first foods that will fill you and if you can work in a treat that fits your macros and won’t make you break your diet out of hunger later – go for it.

Plan For Long-Term Success

Fat loss is a slow process. Getting stronger is a slow process. Getting bigger is an even slower process. You cannot realistically expect to lose 20 pounds in a month. Remember that you are in this for the long haul – you want sustainable, lasting results. On a good plan a much more realistic and sustainable goal is around 1.5 lbs per week. Everyone’s different though and it’s much more important to track measurements than weight.

As I mentioned it takes around a 3,500 kCalorie deficit to burn one pound of fat. Multiply your daily TDEE (estimated total calories burned in a day) by 7 to find how much you burn in a week. Now, figure out how many calories you will consume in a week on your plan ([workout day calories x 3] + [rest day calories x 4]) then subtract it from your estimated weekly calories burned. That will be able to tell you roughly how much you’ll lose in a week. Multiply that by how much you estimate you have to lose, and you should be able to figure out roughly how many weeks until you reach your goal. Mark that date down in a place you’ll see it every day.

The final part of planning for long-term success is to simply stick to it, and at the end of each month assess how you did. Tweak your diet and exercise as necessary to maintain your loss until you reach your goal, then reassess your goals and either work to maintain (much easier than losing!) or progress toward some other goal.

Part IV: Go Forth and Succeed!

One last time, we’d like to reiterate that this is just the starting point. Take into consideration your goals and that everyone is different, and adjust accordingly. There’s too much genetic diversity for there to be a “one-size-fits-all” diet and eating plan that works for everyone, and different goals require different approaches.

So please just consider this a starting point: page one of your journey to being epic.

Additional Resources for Over-Achievers

For the over-achiever and voracious reader, here’s some additional resources for you to read up on Leangains:

Was this guide clear and useful? Feel free to comment and let us know your thoughts or ask any questions you may have for us below – don’t forget to share what your goals are too!

Photo Credit: Caro Wallis

20 Easy Ways to De-Stress and Relax

http://www.flickr.com/photos/h-k-d/

Full moon and bonsai not required.

Are you stressed out?

I know, I know – stupid question. Everyone’s stressed out. It’s just a condition of modern life. We all have pressure from work, family, finances, health concerns and a million other things. There aren’t really many good options for escaping it.

The problem is being stressed out all the time can literally kill you or at least set in motion changes that can bring about a much earlier demise than would have otherwise been in your future. Health problems ranging from heart disease to diabetes to acne can be caused or exacerbated by being too stressed out, and if you’re trying to lose weight the cortisol it floods your system with will make things exponentially more difficult for you. Being stressed is serious business.

So what can we do about it?

How to Fight and Relieve Stress

Everyone’s a little bit different, so some things will work better for some while others may need to try a different approach. The important thing is to find what works best for you and then to make time to do it every single day. Remember, if something’s important you should do it everyday. Relieving stress is extremely important, so don’t neglect it.

  1. Meditate – Meditation is number one on the list because it’s probably the most obvious and yet the most potentially intimidating if you’ve never done it. The key is to not think of meditation as some mystical or spiritual thing, it’s just exercise for your brain. Exercise that has been shown to reduce stress, improve clarity of thought and train your mind to focus more easily. Some studies have shown that meditation even helps your brain build more grey matter to help you deal with stressful situations on a day to day basis.

    The easiest way to get started if you’re a beginner to meditation is to just set aside five minutes to sit down and not think about anything. It’s harder than it sounds, but once you can sit five minutes with no thoughts popping into your head, try for ten, then for fifteen and so on. Guess what? You’re meditating!

  2. Read – As little as six minutes of reading has been shown to cause significant reductions in saliva cortisol levels – that means a reduction in stress. The studies in question used fiction, so the jury’s still out as to whether curling up with a technical manual is going to help you much.

    I know my preference for de-stressing is a good work of fiction anyway. Few things offer the kind of imagination powered escapism that a good book has inside of it. Don’t think you can half-ass it and de-stress with TV either, with the exception of comedy shows TV increased stress levels on average so ditch your TV.

  3. Listen to Music – Music is extremely therapeutic. The trick is in finding the right kind of music for you. There have been studies on the calming effect of classical music, so if you’re not sure you can always turn to that to unrustle your jimmies.

    Now while I personally do enjoy classical music, I’ve found I de-stress equally well to all the 90s music I group on. Well, almost all of it anyway. The point is there are even some thrashing, screaming Finntroll songs that I’ve found I can sit down and close my eyes and listen to that calm me down – find what music works for you then spend a little bit of time each day or night listening to it. Really listen to it too, don’t do anything else or try to multitask, just listen and relax.

  4. Have Some Pet Time – Whether you’re a dog person or a cat person, spending time with pets not only helps de-stress you but also helps lower your blood pressure. Spending some quality time just loving on your pet of choice is so effective they even use them in some nursing homes and hospitals to help improve the condition of residents and long term patients.

    If you have your own pet, take some time each day to just sit and pet them or play with them. If you don’t have any pets see if you can hang out with a friend or family member who does or volunteer every now and again at a rescue or animal shelter.

  5. Scream Profanity – If a lot of your stress is manifesting itself as anger and tension, go scream some curse words at the top of your lungs until you feel better. Screaming is a really good way to vent and let off pent up frustrations, and the use of profanity actually helps us deal with physical pain better – so it stands to reason that it would help deal with stress as well. Aside from being cathartic, it’s usually pretty fun.

    On a side note, if you get hung up over the use of profanity, grow up and deal with it. They’re just words. It’s the intent that’s important, and if your intent is to blow off steam and relax as opposed to intending to harm someone else then there’s nothing that makes any of those words ‘bad’.

  6. Smile and Laugh – Even if you don’t have anything to smile about, forcing yourself to think about something that makes you smile actually triggers a feedback loop that releases the feel good chemicals in your brain that cause you to smile. That means forcing yourself to smile can physically make you feel happier.

    The same thing happens when we laugh. Every time we laugh our brains are triggered to release the chemical cocktail that makes us happy and want to laugh more. You can either force laughter by trying to think of something funny, or just go out and find something funny to watch or listen to. Spend 5 minutes every night watching something hilarious on YouTube or find a funny show you really love and save them for when you’re particularly stressed. Laughter not only improves your mood, but it also lowers blood pressure – so you get a double benefit.

  7. Go Play – Just because you’re a grown up doesn’t mean you have to act old. Playing is not only an inherent part of being human, it’s an inherent part of being a mammal. Getting out and playing not only gives you something to focus on other than the reasons you’re stressed out, it also gives you an outlet to work out some of your energy and get a little bit of exercise. It’s also a social activity, and being around other people you’re comfortable with is another good way to help lower stress. Make it an outdoor game and you even get the mood elevating effect of Vitamin D exposure.

    Grab some friends, or your kids or even your dog and go find a game to play. It doesn’t have to be anything complicated, it can be as structured as an organized game of football or as irreverent as a game of chase. The point is just to go have fun and forget about everything that’s troubling you. Make it an actual physical game though, video games don’t count.

  8. Have Sex – If you’re reading this, sorry Mom. The fact is though that sex is an excellent way to relive stress. I’m reasonably certain I don’t have to explain in too great of detail why that’s the case. It should be noted though that this tactic is one best taken when you’re in a committed relationship as trying to use sex as a stress reliever outside of a committed relationship can increase the probability of creating situations which will lead to much more stress down the road.

  9. Workout – A good workout acts as stress relief in many of the same ways good sex does – the physical exertion not only encourages your body to release all the pleasant chemicals and hormones that make you feel calm, serene and happy, it also allows you to physically vent any pent up frustration and anger that may be adding to your stress levels. Exercise pair extremely well with meditation as vigorous physical activity also leads to changes in your brain that improve your clarity of thought.

    Really you should be on a structured fitness routine anyway, but if you aren’t on one or are strapped for time you can always make good use of a quick 5 minute morning bodyweight circuit There is no such thing as being too busy to work out – you have time to exercise – you just have to make it.

  10. Go for a Walk – Vitamin D is a natural mood elevator, and there are few better ways to get a little bit more Vitamin D than taking a nice relaxing stroll outside. Going for a nice walk is effective as a stress reliever for a variety of reasons, the physical activity encourages the release of pleasant brain chemicals, the exposure to sunlight provides an extra little does of Vitamin D and lastly a good long walk allows you time to reflect on the things that are stressing you and work through them.

    Thoreau (who penned an entire essay entitled Walking) wrote, “I think that I cannot preserve my health and spirits, unless I spend four hours a day at least – and it is commonly more than that – sauntering through the woods and over the hills and fields, absolutely free from all worldly engagements”. It’s that freedom from worldly engagements, the feeling of which I second, that provides so much needed relief from life’s stresses.

  11. Explore Nature – I’ll resist the urge to follow one Thoreau quote with another, or perhaps one from Emerson, but both would tell you that it’s extremely important for a person’s well being to spend some quality time immersed in nature. I’ll tell you the same thing – getting outside into the wilderness is a wonderfully calming experience and I think a lack of time truly enjoying nature leads to a great deal of the stress most people feel in their lives.

    Take an afternoon and head out to a park or the nearest woods and go for a stroll. Sit by a stream and listen to the birds or climb a tree and just hang out up there for a while. If you want, combine your exposure to nature with some of the other stress relieving tactics – exercise outside, read a book in a tree, or meditate on a log. Just be careful about number 8, depending on where you are that might lead to embarrassment and a night in jail.

  12. Call Home – I know, I know, you’re a big boy or girl. You don’t need your mommy. You might change your mind though once you see how much stress she can take off your shoulders. In a study on college aged girls researches found a ten minute call to their moms brought about a significant reduction in saliva cortisol. A quick call home to the folks may be just what you need to stop feeling like you’re going to rip all the hair out of your head.

    Of course, if you have a strained relationship with your parents this option may not be the best one for you. It goes without saying that you know your situation better than anyone, just don’t dismiss it as an option because you feel embarrassed.

  13. Eat a Small Piece of Dark Chocolate – A small piece. A small piece of dark chocolate can trigger all of the same good feelings as a round of hearty laughter or some good grins, as well as all the feel good chemicals that come along with it. Cocoa also has a positive effect on blood pressure and HDL levels, so there’s an added bonus there. The important thing is to not go overboard. A small piece of dark chocolate is good for you, an entire bag of dark chocolate is not good for you. Especially if you use your stress to justify tearing through one each night. Keep it in moderation.

  14. Vent to Someone – If screaming out profanity isn’t really your thing, you can always verbally vent to someone else. Being able to just unload on someone who cares and is patient enough to listen not only helps by providing a comforting social experience where you bond even more closely with a friend or loved one, but also allows you to openly examine what’s stressing you and get all of the internalized pressures off your chest.

    Sharing your burdens with someone willing to help you with them is a huge relief, but make sure to actually vent to someone willing to share your burdens. It can be even more disheartening to open up to someone about how stressed out you are only to have them react dismissively or negatively. You know which people in your life you can open up to, so pick the right one.

  15. Breathe – Breathing is an incredible physiological process. Deep calming breaths have a profound ability to calm the mind, slow down your heart rate and bring clarity of thought. It’s why a focus on deep breathing is such a key element to many forms of meditation. You don’t need to meditate to use breathing as a stress relief technique (although, seriously, you should try meditation), you just need to take a second to take a nice deep breath through your nose and out your mouth.

    Focus on breathing from your diaphragm. That means when you take a nice deep breath instead of your shoulders coming up, your belly should push out and down. This allows you to get a much bigger, deeper breath which means more oxygen. More oxygen means a happier, calmer and more focused brain. That means less stress.

  16. Get a Massage – Again, if I need to explain to you why this is a good option for how to de-stress, you are way too far gone for me to help. Go on out and treat yourself to a professional massage every now and then if you have to – some people swear by it. A better option in my opinion is to trade massages with your significant other. Not only are the massages a good way to relieve stress and increase intimacy, they tend to lead to another stress relief option I mentioned previously.

  17. Make a List of Positives – Being able to take what’s stressing you and get it out of your system, either verbally or through physical exertion, is a common thread running throughout many of these stress relieving tactics. That’s because it works. Another equally good option is to sit down and make a physical list of all the good or positive things in your life.

    There’s something psychologically powerful about making physical lists. While you can certainly type it, I really do think getting a pen and paper and writing by hand is a much more powerful exercise. Take some time and do it mindfully, write down as many good things in your life as you possibly can. By the end I guarantee you’ll feel a lot less stressed and a lot more grateful.

  18. Smell Something Really Good – Out of all the senses, scent is the most strongly linked to memory and emotional response in our brains. You can use this to your advantage by finding a particular scent that reminds you of something you love, be it home, the smell of your favorite flower or a special fragrance your significant other wears, and exposing yourself to it when you really need to relax.

    If you don’t have any smells ingrained in your mind as particularly calming or pleasant you can make one. Pick a unique scent, lavender works well and so does incense as they’re easily available and very unique. Once you have your scent every time you employ one of the other stress relieving techniques fill the room with it first. Before long just exposing yourself to the scent will trigger the same emotional response as the calming activities you normally do with it.

  19. Visualize Something Happy and Calming – While visualizations aren’t quite as powerful as scent for triggering an emotional or memory response, they’re still pretty strong. It’s why we employ visualizations to enhance our memories to encode a lot of new information very quickly.

    In this case, we want to use our visualizations to recall a happy or serene moment rather than to encode new information with a memory hook. Sit somewhere comfortable, close your eyes, take a nice deep breath and picture your happy place. I know it sounds cliched and silly, but it really does work.

  20. Stretch – Stretching is a good idea for a lot of reasons, but the one we’re concerned about here is the relaxing effect it has. Most people already stretch instinctively when they’re trying to relax. You can use the natural physiological response from stretching to lower your stress levels and increase your flexibility a little bit all at the same time.

    While I’m of the opinion you should already have a good flexibility routine in place, you don’t need one to use stretches to relax. Just set aside 5 to 10 minutes either right when you wake up, right after a workout (not before) or right before bed to do a couple easy stretches. If you want to get a little more advanced, try some nice slow yoga. (Though you should avoid hot yoga at all costs).

I’m certain there are lots more quick and effective ways to reduce stress, but these were the first ones to come to mind. If you can think of any others or have some that have worked particularly well for you in the past, share them in the comments! We’re all stressed out and I guarantee they’ll be appreciated.

Photo Credit: H.koppdelaney

How to Not Suck at Evaluating Claims

From the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary by Double--M

You don’t need all this stuff to properly evaluate the veracity of a claim.

Most people really suck at evaluating claims.

It’s not their fault – to be honest at least in the U.S. very little in our society or education systems properly prepares us to evaluate claims and make proper reason-based decisions.

The good news is, even if you’ve been awful at it your entire life, you can easily learn how to evaluate claims properly by starting to use some basic guidelines.

But first, why is it even important to have this skill?

Sic Semper in Excretia Sumus, Solum Profundum Variat.

It is staggering at times just how much bullshit there is out there – even more staggering is how willing people are in general to accept it.

Whether it’s Deepak Chopra making rambling, nonsensical claims about quantum mechanics, Dr. Oz touting the latest scientifically unsupported miracle health fad or a pop up ad yelling to you about a guy who “language professors hate” because he came up with the secret formula for easy language acquisition – there are a lot of people asking you to believe a lot of claims out there.

Some of these claims are legitimate, others are not. When the consequences of failing to properly evaluate a claim can range from something mildly annoying like wasting $10 to something dire like serious injury or death it’s vital to separate out the two as best as we possibly can.

While this skill applies across the board to essentially all aspects of life due to the manner in which we’re assaulted with information and advertisements on a daily basis I think it’s extra important for those interested in fitness and looking to improve their health because the fields of health, fitness & nutrition are some of the most saturated with unsupported and potentially dangerous claims.

So what are some easy ways to begin separating out the claims you should probably accept from those you probably shouldn’t?

The Bullshit Detection Kit

I have to give credit to the incomparable Carl Sagan and his excellent book The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark for the concept of a bullshit detection kit (sometimes also called the baloney detection kit). The idea is to have a set of tools that can be easily applied to new claims that you come across to help you determine if they are likely to be true or not. Our bullshit detection kit differs a little from his, but the concepts are the same.

A note on the word ‘true’ – ‘True’ here means supported by reality. If you’re the kind of person who vociferously claims there is no objective truth and that everyone determines their own equally viable personal truth I invite you to decide gravity is a subjective truth and step out of a second story window.

The bullshit detection kit is in no way infallible, but it can offer a little bit of guidance in the right direction. As we unpack our kit we’ll apply each piece to a fitness claim that was made recently enough to still be in memory but far enough back that it’s been solidly disproven – the efficacy of power bands.

So let’s get to work.

  • Who’s Making the Claim – The first thing to look at when evaluating a claim is who’s making it and with that do they benefit directly from acceptance of this claim. In other words, if the only people making the claim are the manufacturers and sellers of a product then that claim should be more suspect than one independently verified by a source with nothing to gain by verifying that claim.

    In the case of power bands while companies made claims that the efficacy of their bands was scientifically demonstrable, they never actually released any studies or proof that didn’t come from a place funded entirely by the company that sold them. When the only people making the claim are the people trying to sell the claim to you and they’re only backed up by their own non-independently verified research, you should be suspicious.

  • Has the Claim Been Tested Properly – Whenever possible you should always look for a properly controlled double-blind study on whatever claim you’re evaluating. A proper double-blind study with a control group does the best job of guaranteeing that any confounding factors (variables that affect the outcome of the test and obscure the validity of the claim) are removed and only the claim is being tested.

    Anecdotal evidence or evidence from personal experience is insufficient – people are very easily deceived and we’re always the best at deceiving ourselves. Someone may tell you that a claim is true, someone may tell you that something worked for them, they may even genuinely believe what they’re telling you but the claim still may be false.

    It’s equally important that the claim be tested properly because then other independent testers with no personal stake in the outcome of the testing can run the same test. If they come to the same conclusions and get the same results then that lends credibility to the truth of the claim. If not, either something was done improperly in the testing or the claim is more likely to be false.

    Many power band companies used a kinesthetic trick where they would put the band on you and tug on your arm. You would appear to be much stronger with the band on and, hopefully for the sales person, be so impressed by this ‘proof’ that you’d drop $50 or so on a 10 cent piece of rubber and tin foil. When these same products were put to a double-blind study wherein the participants didn’t know if they had the band on or not, there was absolutely zero effect.

  • Is There Definite Causation – The post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this) fallacy is a common misstep in the evaluation of the truth of claims. It’s due to the tendency of people to conflate correlation and causation – or just to see causation where there isn’t any.

    A good example might be that you have a headache. You take two aspirin and spin around ten times. Your headache goes away, but which actually cured you? This can even happen sans the aspirin since sometimes headaches just go away. You might spin around ten times and your headache disappears, but did the spinning actually help or did the headache just go away on its own or for another reason.

    Another good example might be the fact that there’s a strong correlation between having black hair and eating a diet high in rice. Does that mean that having black hair makes you more likely to eat rice or that eating rice makes you more likely to have black hair? Clearly not – it just happens that black hair is genetically more common in Asia and agriculturally rice is a staple food there.

    In the case of power bands they claimed that big name athletes that used them were performing better in games and pointed to statistics of professional athletes who had bought into their marketing to back it up. Even though they pointed to improvements in the performance of these athletes it still didn’t prove that the bracelet itself was having any actual effect.

  • Does the Claimant Rely on Arguments from Authority or other Fallacies – A common tactic for puffing up a claim with little actual substance behind it is the argument from authority. The argument from authority is essentially the argument that because someone smart or important says it’s true, it must be true.

    While in certain cases the support of a knowledgeable expert can add credence to a claim – for example a respected astrophysicist agreeing with a claim about astrophysics – it should not be the sole reason for accepting it.

    Even if a ton of experts agree a claim is true, it may still not be. Even if everyone in the world agrees that a claim is true, it may still not be. A claim must stand on its own merits and not rely entirely on its acceptance by others.

    Power bands companies, either through genuinely convincing them or via large payments, secured the endorsements of a lot of pro athletes. This was a big selling point for most people who thought, “If NBA star X wears one it must work! I’ll buy one too!” Unfortunately for the consumer, just because someone else says something is true doesn’t actually mean it is.

There are a lot more ways people who make false claims will try to convince you of there veracity and many more ways to help sort out the true from the false – but this will at least get you started. If you have any other tips you think people should keep in mind in order to not suck so bad at evaluating claims chime in and share them!

Photo Credit: Double–M

Using Breaks to Overcome Fitness Plateaus

Bear in a Basket by Ucumari

Even bears know the importance of taking a break once in a while.

Sometimes you just hit a wall in your progress.

It happens to everyone – it doesn’t matter how long you’ve been training, how well constructed your program is, how perfect your diet, sleep patterns and recovery are – at some point you’re going to plateau. Often times it’s extremely frustrating because it feels like you’re doing everything right, but you still can’t make any progress.

The natural response for most people is to try to power through it. They up the intensity, super fine tune their diet, obsess over every little thing and about kill themselves to push as hard as they possibly can in each workout. The problem is this is the wrong response. So how do we get back to progressing?

Simple. Take a break.

Why Have a Deload Week?

For some people it’s puzzling why I would recommend taking a week off or switching to something lighter (deloading) for people who are stuck and want to get stronger. The problem is that they’re not looking at the big picture and still think exercise makes you stronger. It doesn’t.

Recovery makes you stronger.

Essentially while all the hard work in the gym is necessary to provide the stimulus to start the process of muscle growth the actual muscle growth itself doesn’t happen in the gym, it happens over the next few days and while you’re sleeping.

Exercise is the ignition switch that starts up the engine, but recovery is the engine itself – it’s what really does the work you want in the end.

Sometimes after a while it gets to a point where you’ve just done too much intentional damage to your system and haven’t given it or aren’t giving it enough time to recover. That can translate to putting in a lot of work, but not seeing any results. When something like this happens the best course of action is to provide your body with enough rest to recover fully so you can get back to work. How do you do that?

Take a break.

How to Deload

For some people, wrapping their head around not training for a week can be painful. I used to feel that way too. Once you see the benefit a well-timed deload week can have though you’ll see why I don’t feel that way anymore. I’m not suggesting that you just drop everything and spend the week lying around on the couch eating ice cream either, when you take a break to help push through a plateau it should be an active, intentional break. Here’s a few options if you have no idea how to do that.

  • The Traditional Deload Week – Generally when people in the lifting world talk about a deload week they mean a week with a 40% or so reduction in training intensity. So that means on higher rep lifts a reduction in reps by around 40% (e.g., 12 reps instead of 20) and for low rep high weight lifts a reduction in weight by 40% (e.g., 180 lb. squat instead of a 300 lb. squat).

    Why specifically 40%? To be honest I’m not sure other than that historically it has always worked well. As to whether there have been any rigorous scientific studies to back that 40% up as the ideal amount I’ve been unable to find any. You could certainly reduce by a different percentage, but just know that the 40% deload has been used often and with lots of success.

  • The Active Recovery Week – Instead of a traditional deload week, you can always go for an active recovery week. An active recovery week differs from a more traditional deload in that here you don’t necessarily do the same exercises as your normal training program. Instead you focus on different related exercises and things that get you moving but aren’t nearly as intense as your standard routine.

    Spending some steady time on the rowing machine, focusing on mobility work, checking out some yoga classes, switching to a bodyweight routine or doing assistance exercise to your core lifts at a lower intensity all fall under the category of active recovery.

  • The Play Week – Another option if neither of those sound interesting is just to take a week and focus entirely on playing. Go have fun, climb some things, give parkour a try, play some football/baseball/hopscotch/whatever, go hiking, you get the point.

    Play is a big part of alive and happy so go do it. Make the whole point of the week to be up and moving as much as possible but in a relaxed, fun, playful way. By the end of the week not only will you feel better physically, you’ll probably be a lot less stressed and more happy on top of it.

A Note on Nutrition

Just because you’re taking a break from your standard exercise schedule doesn’t mean you should necessarily take a break from your normal nutritional plan. Depending on how you’re eating one cheat day in there may be fine if you have them normally and they’re a part of your program, but don’t take the week off as an excuse to go into some Bacchanalian feast mode and nom your way through three tons of junk food.

Instead, if you’re going to change your dietary habits at all during your break, eat lots of meat. Protein is your very bestest friend during recovery time, so go nuts. If you’re a vegetarian or a vegan, well… you have my sympathy.

Have you had success breaking through a sticking point in your fitness by using a break or a deload week? Tell us about it in the comments! If you’ve got any other good ideas for how to relax and recover properly, be sure to share those too.

Photo Credit: Ucumari

How to Build Batman-Like Discipline and Willpower

Roar by Gideon Tsang

Donning a costume and yelling may also increase your willpower.

Batman’s life sucks.

It does. He has nearly unlimited wealth and freedom as Bruce Wayne and he can never enjoy it. It’s nearly impossible for him to form meaningful relationships without the fear or pain of having that person murdered as a result of their involvement with him. His days are filled with rigorous training and his nights with battles that often come very close to being fatal. He’s eternally haunted by the memory of his parents and I don’t know when he gets any sleep.

So how does he put himself through all that hell? He has serious willpower.

Think how easy it would be for him to say, “You know what? Screw this Batman thing tonight. I’m just going to sit around the mansion, watch TV and eat ice cream in my fabulously expensive pajamas.” He doesn’t though. Even when he gets sick and any normal person would take a day off of a job that doesn’t involve getting shot at he still goes out there to do what has to be done.

Beyond the bottomless pool of money that is Wayne Enterprises it’s that discipline that has enabled Bruce Wayne to become Batman.

So how do we develop discipline like that?

Defining Discipline and Willpower

Though you could probably tease out some minor differences, for now I’m going to use the terms discipline and willpower interchangeably. Boiled down to its essence willpower is the capacity to do something you don’t want to do because you know that it’s the thing that needs to be done. In most cases this involves delaying gratification and suppressing or ignoring our instinctual desires.

When you walk by the big box of donuts at the office and don’t take one even though you want to, that’s willpower. When you really want to go watch TV or play video games but force yourself to sit down and get your work done first, that’s willpower. When the alarm goes off and you would murder someone in order to sleep five more minutes but you get up and go work out, that’s willpower.

This kind of discipline is what keeps us from doing the things that we get the instant gratification from in the understanding that we will get a much bigger benefit by avoiding those behaviors. It’s what keeps Bruce Wayne in cape and cowl instead of parked in front of his Xbox.

Willpower Is a Muscle

Whenever you hear people talk about willpower or discipline you often hear people describe it like it were another invisible muscle somewhere in your body. It’s a really good way to conceptualize it – willpower really does work a lot like a muscle.

Everyone has a different strength of willpower, some are more disciplined than others naturally, practice exercises your willpower and helps you build more of it and, like your physical muscles, your willpower can only exert so much force before it’s fatigued and gives up. In fact, like all your other muscles the strength of your willpower is even affected by your health and the foods you eat.

This may sound like bad news but actually it’s really great. Understanding how our own discipline works means we can work within that system to improve it.

How to Strengthen Your Willpower

When it comes to developing a stronger sense of discipline it all revolves around that concept of treating it like a muscle. We need to remember not only to work it out, but also to make sure we don’t wear it into the ground by expecting too much from it.

  • Know Your Limits – Like all your muscles your willpower has a limited amount of energy. Once that energy is tapped your willpower isn’t going to be able to do anything until it’s had some time to rest and recover.

    Since you know this is the case, don’t set yourself up for failure. If you knew you had to move a piano on Monday night would you go do heavy deadlifts and squats Monday morning? No, you’d be spent by the time you got to the piano and you’d be useless. So don’t do the same thing with your willpower.

    If you know you have particularly weak willpower, or are going to be put in a situation where you know you’re going to have your willpower tested, don’t burn it out on little things throughout the day. If you know you’re going to have to turn down dessert later don’t spend all day walking past cookies and donuts. Eliminate the things you can that sap away little bits of discipline so that your reserves are filled for the real tests you know are coming.

  • Do Your Exercises – Studies have shown that purposefully exercising your willpower actually makes it stronger. Just like with your muscles the key is to know how to exercise it properly and to develop a plan to do so. So what are some ways you can do that?

    The easiest way is to set up controlled situations where you know you’ll be tempted by something and then exercising your discipline to avoid it. Start slow here, particularly if you know you don’t have much discipline to begin with. Pick a task you should do but never want to, like meditation, and make yourself do it for a very short time each day – maybe 5 minutes. After a while, build that up until you have the discipline to meditate for 30 minutes each day.

    Another extremely easy way is to consciously force yourself to do some little thing you’re not used to doing. For example make a commitment to not use contractions in your speech, to brush your teeth with your opposite hand or sit up more straight. It may not seem like much, but every time you make the conscious decision to do it your work out your willpower just a little and it adds up.

    Be careful though – just like with your physical muscles overtraining can lead to problems. I also wouldn’t recommend training to failure. Don’t put out a giant plate of cookies to resist all day only to push yourself too far, give up and gorge on them. Always be mindful of your limits and keep at it and you’ll see improvements.

  • Stay Fed – Your muscles need energy to function and so does your willpower. Researchers found that study participants who were put through tests exercising their willpower showed decreased blood sugar and glycogen levels as a result of the exercise. As you burn up energy flexing your discipline muscles it makes it harder and harder to keep up.

    As it turns out replenishing blood sugar and glycogen stores, with sugar water or orange juice in most of the studies, helped mitigate those effects and allowed participants to do better on subsequent tests of willpower.

    That means a couple things. The first is that if you find your willpower waning you might be able to give it a small boost by snacking on something sugary. Now if you’re trying to stick to a strict diet be careful here, that’s not an excuse to go crazy on 10 pounds of candy bars, but a little snack can help.

    Second, it means that things that tend to wear out your glycogen stores – stress, lack of sleep, illness etc. – directly deplete your ability to exercise your willpower. Use this to your advantage by going into situations where you know you’re going to have your willpower tested well-fed and rested.

    Batman of course may be the exception to this – like I said I have no idea how he finds time to get enough sleep. Once you reach equivalent levels of discipline you can skip meals and never sleep while maintaining an iron will too, until then though you should get your eight hours and take care of yourself.

  • Stay Happy – I know it’s easier said then done, but your mood also directly affects the strength of your discipline. When you’re in a good, upbeat mood your willpower is stronger and when you’re feeling depressed, upset or angry it’s a lot harder to resist doing things you shouldn’t or force yourself to do things you should.

    Thankfully, you probably don’t have to worry about maintaining a second identity or avoiding death on a nightly basis. Even so it can be a bit tough to maintain a positive attitude.

    We’ve talked about ways to stay happier in the past. A few easy ways are to consciously make yourself smile more, to learn to follow your dreams, or to give meditation a try.

    Just like with lifting, music can also give you that extra mental motivation to do what needs to be done. If you’re finding you lack the motivation to sit down and get your work done instead of wasting time on Facebook, put on some of your favorite music and rock out or dance around or whatever you need to do to get pumped. Then sit back down and get stuff done.

  • Don’t Think About Elephants – Bruce Wayne is definitely haunted by the memory of his parents. It’s part of what defines him. Instead of running from that fact and trying to suppress his anger he accepts it and redirects it into a positive thing as Batman. If he tried to deny all that hate and bottle it up it would eventually consume him.

    The same thing happens to us when we try to avoid focusing on something unpleasant – or anything really. It’s like when someone tells you, “Whatever you do, don’t think about [blank].”

    You can’t help but think about it. The harder you try to not think about it the harder it is to actually not think about it. Researchers have been doing studies on this effect for a long time and in every case the more we focus on avoiding something, the more difficult it is not to dwell on it.

    How does this tie in to willpower?

    Discipline, like we said, is the ability to either stop yourself from doing something you want to do, or making yourself do something you don’t want to do. Either way it has to do with overriding your desires. A lot of people think the best way to do that is to try to ignore them. They feel their extreme craving for a pint of ice cream and they jam their metaphorical fingers in their ears and start yelling, “I can’t hear you!”

    This doesn’t work though, for the reason we just discussed. The more you try to deny or ignore your craving for bad food or your desire to go watch TV instead of getting your work done the more irresistible it becomes.

    Instead of denying it the best course of action is to acknowledge it, decide what to do about it and move on. When you do that those desires lose their bite. Rather than ignoring your craving say, “Hmm, I really want some ice cream. I shouldn’t though, so I’ll go chop up an apple and sprinkle just a little brown sugar on it. That’ll be a lot better in the long run.”

    Think of it as Batman style mental jujutsu. By redirecting your desire to play video games and avoid work into a desire to roll up your sleeves and dominate that work so you can go play video games guilt free you take that negative emotion’s power away and make it something positive.

Being Your Own Batman

Will these techniques give you the strength of will to live like Bruce Wayne? Probably not to be honest, but I’m not certain any human could. What these techniques will do is help you build up your discipline until you can become your own personal Batman.

Being your own Batman means having the fortitude to get the things you need to get done done. It means having the willpower to stop doing all the things you need to stop and to do all the things you need to do. It means becoming strong enough to make your own life and the lives of those around you as best as you possibly can.

Have you used any of these techniques to improve your own discipline? Do you have any other techniques you’d like to add that have worked well for you? Share them in the comments!

Photo Credit: Gideon Tsang

Don’t Bench Press ’til You French Press – A Guide to Caffeine for Performance Enhancement

Black, White, Coffee by Bitzcelt

The drug of choice for millions can give you better workouts.

Caffeine is the number one most consumed drug in the world. It’s in soda, chocolate, coffee, tea, energy drinks and even a lot of herbal supplements. Most people are extremely familiar with – if not dependent on – the energy boost it provides. I know I tend to be somewhat less than peppy if I miss my morning coffee. What most people don’t know is that caffeine is an extremely effective performance enhancer for training.

If you know how and when to supplement with caffeine you can not only improve your endurance, but improve your strength output and prime your body to burn more fat during exercise than it normally would. That means you get more out of every workout for the price of a cup of coffee. Sounds good to me.

The Benefits of Caffeine

Researchers and exercise physiologists have been studying the effects of caffeine as a performance enhancer since at least 1978 and study after study has confirmed the same conclusion – it works. In fact, with all the solid data on the clear benefits of caffeine supplementation it’s a wonder it hasn’t been banned in more sports. Here are just some of the benefits caffeine offers.

Improved Endurance

The most obvious benefit to caffeine supplementation is it’s ability to improve muscular endurance. That means that you can go harder for longer without having to take a rest. Formerly it was thought this was a result of caffeine’s ability to release fat stores into the bloodstream to be used as fuel saving your muscle’s glycogen stores and allowing them to last longer. Now though research has shown caffeine also stimulates the release of calcium stored in muscle – the release of this calcium increases both endurance and overall power output.

On top of all of that, caffeine has the neurological effect of distorting your perception of exhaustion, meaning that even when your energy stores are used up your brain thinks it can keep going allowing you to push past your normal point of failure.

Regardless of how it works, researchers agree that caffeine supplementation can improve an athlete’s endurance from 5% all the way up to 25% depending on the person. A five percent increase may not sound like much, but when you’re trying to push yourself to run just a little bit farther it can make all the difference.

Increased Strength Output

When it comes to maximal strength training the best way to get stronger is to move heavy weights. The heavier weights you can move the stronger you can become and the more muscle you can build. Caffeine can help you do that more quickly by increasing the total amount you can lift.

This effect may be due to the release of fat stores and calcium that we mentioned or it may be an effect of the widening of blood vessels and increased blood oxygenation that caffeine produces – either way the result ranges from a 3% increase in strength output all the way up to an 18% increase in some studies.

To put that in perspective, for someone with a non-caffeinated 1RM bench of 200 pounds that could mean an increase of 36 pounds. That’s an impressive return for doing something as easy as downing a cup of Starbucks.

Better Fat Metabolism

More concerned about losing weight than about running farther or getting stronger? No problem, caffeine still has you covered. Caffeine stimulates the release of stored fat into the bloodstream for energy and causes the body to place a preference on using fat as energy over carbohydrates.

Best of all, this effect lasts for at least a few hours on average. That means that the increase in free flowing fatty acids is there both during your workout to fuel your efforts, and after your workout to help replace muscle glycogen stores. This means caffeine before your workout makes you burn more fat during and after that workout and may also aid in recovery.

If you’re trying to lose those last few stubborn pounds caffeine supplementation can be the thing that finally gets you past the plateau.

Beyond all of these benefits there are tons of tertiary benefits to regular caffeine consumption including lowered risk of cardiac disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s – so even if you’re not using it directly as a performance enhancer it helps keep you healthy.

A Few Precautions

Caffeine is a drug.

That means that like with any other drug there are potential side effects and dosage control is very important. Thankfully, the list of potential detriments from caffeine is relatively minor and, unless you’re pouring an entire bottle of caffeine pills down your throat, it is relatively difficult to overdose.

Blood Pressure, Increased Heart Rate & Dehydration

The first potential problem we’ll address right away is dehydration. The diuretic effects of caffeine are way, way overblown. In people who are completely unconditioned to caffeine there’s a slight diuretic effect but even this is weak enough to be insignificant in terms of increasing risk for dehydration. Be intelligent – you know when you need fluids so get them.

When it comes to increasing blood pressure and heart rate caffeine does have a slightly stronger effect but only in people who have not had caffeine for 4 to 5 days. If you have a cup of coffee everyday anyway, and have been for more than a few days, than caffeine doesn’t have any effect on your blood pressure or heart rate and won’t unless you go cold turkey for a while then reintroduce it.

If you have heart problems and hypertension and have never had a coffee or a soda in a month or two than you should be a little careful, everyone else is fine.

The best part about this conditioning is studies have shown that while the detrimental effects follow a curve of diminishing returns the benefits do not. That means if you consume some caffeine everyday you still get the full performance enhancing benefit with none of the detrimental side effects.

How to Use Caffeine to Improve Performance

Ok, so you’re convinced now right? You know you should be supplementing with caffeine to improve your workouts and you want to know how.

The first step is choosing the right source for your caffeine. Caffeine is in a lot of things nowadays and you have a lot of options. Since we’re ingesting this caffeine with the goal of using it to improve exercise performance – and therefore I assume health is important to you – we can eliminate all sugary drinks first offhand. That means no sodas, energy drinks or chocolate.

So what’re we left with? Tea, coffee and caffeine pills are the main contenders remaining. Tea has a lot of general health benefits, but it has relatively low caffeine content so I would exclude it as well. That leaves coffee and caffeine pills.

The final decision between the two comes down a lot to personal preference. Some studies have shown a statistically stronger benefit to ingesting the pure caffeine pills over the coffee, and it is much easier to control the dosage. That being said, coffee is really good – so it’s your choice.

As far as the dosages go, the general recommendation is 3 to 6 mg per kg of bodyweight. Several studies have shown benefit from dosages as low as 1 mg per kg of bodyweight though, so you may need to do a little personal experimentation and see what works best for you. The best time to ingest the caffeine is between and hour and 30 minutes prior to exercise.

An average 20 oz cup of coffee (a Venti for you Starbucks patrons) has 400 mg of caffeine, which would be more than enough for most people. A standard caffeine pill is 200 mg, meaning it also would be more than enough for anyone weighing less than 200 kg (about 440 lbs.) – so you’re covered whichever way you go.

If you’re feeling non-scientific about it 12 to 16 oz of coffee should be enough. Getting more than you need doesn’t diminish the effects, so if you like coffee you might as well go for the large or have them drop a shot of espresso in there.

You can overdose on caffeine, but that usually requires between 150 to 200 mg per kg of bodyweight in humans which translates to 80 to 100 cups of coffee for most people. It’s a little easier with caffeine pills, and some people have had problems with as little as 2 grams so don’t go crazy. Normal usage won’t have any detriments though.

So there you have it – improved endurance, strength, fat loss and tons of other benefits and all you need is a single pill or a medium cup of coffee. With all the benefits, the ease of use and the almost complete lack of negative side effects why would you not want to boost your workouts with caffeine supplementation?

Do you use caffeine regularly for the performance enhancement effects and if not do you think you’ll give it a try? Have you noticed a direct effect from it? Share your experiences in the comments!

Photo Credit: Bitzcelt

Special thanks to my father-in-law Bill for the title.

How to Get Fat

Full-Figured Man by Tobyotter

If you aspire to look like this, read on.

When it comes to health related things here we tend to focus on the best ways to get leaner, faster, stronger and more fit. What if you want the opposite though? What if instead of being strong and healthy you want to be massive and riddled with health problems?

If you’re the kind of person who dreams of one day having to buy two tickets every time you fly on an airplane, than you’re in luck – I’ve put together a basic guide on how to get fat.

1. Stop Moving

The first thing you need to do if you want to get fat is stop moving so much. Obviously you should avoid exercise at all costs but that’s not always enough. You may need to go even further than that and look for as many ways as possible to move as little as possible throughout your day.

If you have a desk job then you’ve already got a good bit of your work cut out for you. Stay at your desk all day and only get up when you absolutely have to. If you must get up, try to replace the calories you’re going to burn by swinging by the break room and grabbing a doughnut or a candy bar. It’s important to take in more energy than you expend.

Once you get home, immediately plop down in front of the TV or in front of a computer and settle in. The goal here should be to only be standing for maybe ten to fifteen minutes total each day. If you think you’re standing too much keep a journal on hand and log all the time you spend standing to see if it needs to be reduced.

Remember video games, TV and the Internet all your friends here. They all let you sit and vegetate without having that nagging urge to get up and do something take over. If you don’t have access to one of those make sure to have a smartphone with you at all times so you can use it to poke around online, stare at Facebook or play a game.

2. Snack Constantly

The claim that eating multiple small meals a day will boost your metabolism has a long history within the Broscience community – thankfully there’s absolutely no truth to it. In fact, eating constantly throughout the day is an excellent tactic for the aspiring obese.

The key here is to always have something nearby that you can grab and eat mindlessly. Any time that you aren’t cramming something into your mouth is wasted time. Even if you’ve already got the sedentary thing down and are moving an absolute minimum you still need to ingest enough calories to pack on some blubber.

By making a point of always having something nearby to snack on you ensure that you have a steady surplus of calories coming in and you never have to worry about being in a deficit and losing precious pounds of pudge.

3. Choose Good Bad Foods

You can’t just snack on and eat anything you want though. Our goal is to put on weight, so you need calories, calories and more calories. That means you should avoid certain foods at all costs.

First up are vegetables. These things are nutrient dense and extremely low calorie, which means you can eat a ton of them and still not get enough calories to get fat. If you can help it, never eat vegetables. Why waste your time getting full on something when it isn’t even going to give you enough calories to get fat? It’s a waste.

Meat is a slightly better choice, but still not perfect. Sure most meats have a lot of fat in them which, at 9 calories per gram, is the highest calorie macronutrient – but it’s also full of protein which means you feel fuller and more satisfied more quickly. Again, we’re looking for something that we can get the most out of so if it makes you feel fuller sooner than it’s not a great choice.

Instead you should turn to the macronutrient specifically geared toward getting you fat – carbohydrates.

Now I’m not saying that carbs alone will make you fat, but they have some important properties that make them ideal for putting on some pounds. First of all, they tend to taste great. If it’s sweet it’s because of carbs. Secondly large doses of carbohydrates cause spikes in Insulin. Insulin then goes on to put that energy into your muscles or, if your muscles are full (perhaps from spending all day sitting in a chair), into storage as fat.

Even with Insulin doing its thing you do need to take in more calories than you burn to actually gain that fat. If you really want to maximize how much fat you’re gaining combine the Insulin generating effects of carbs with the high calorie content of fat to make sure you not only flood your system with Insulin but that at the same time you’ve got a few thousand extra calories in you.

4. Up the Portion Sizes

Getting fat requires a lot of work. Ok, not physical work, but appetite work. You need to learn that four cheeseburgers is an appetizer. Tiny portions are useless. You need to be putting away mountains of food at each meal.

A good general rule to follow is if you’re not eating double the portion that everyone else at the table is eating than your meal isn’t big enough. Don’t be afraid to go back for seconds, thirds or fourths. Even if you’ve gotten to the point where you absolutely, positively cannot eat another bite remember that there are lots of drinks that are packed with calories. If you can’t eat more, order the biggest sugariest soft drink you can find and get to work.

If you want to be fat, more is always better.

Hopefully these tips can help you if it’s your goal to get as fat as possible. If all else fails you can always find a fat mentor and ask them what they do to maintain their girth.

Have any tips on other ways to get fat quickly? Share them in the comments!

Photo Credit: We Love Cosa Rica & Tobyotter

How to Achieve Your Goals by Redefining Your Identity

Fill in the Blank by Darkmatter

Your self-identity is more malleable than you would think.

“If you fall in love with the process, the results come easy.” – Unattributed

I’m not sure who said that first – I’ve heard it attributed to about 50 people including Arnold Schwarzenegger – but it really doesn’t matter because it’s good wisdom. If you stress out over the results too much reaching your goal becomes more difficult, but if you can fall in love with the process that will get you there you’ll find yourself reaching your goal without even thinking about it. So how do we make ourselves fall in love with processes? Easy.

By redefining our identities.

You Are What You Do, And You Do What You Are

I know that sounds like an empty fortune cookie-esque statement at best and self-contradictory at worst, but bear with me for a minute here. The fact is, who you are is largely defined by your habits. What you do in a day really makes up the majority of your identity.

For example, if you spend your whole day in school attending classes and doing homework in the evening, those actions define you as a student or if you spend hours and hours every day playing video games those actions define you as a gamer. Now these aren’t exclusive categories, and I’m not going to go into discussions of stereotypes and self-identification and all that either, but a lot of it comes down to how you view yourself as a person.

Now it should be noted that either the behavior or the identity can come first and they’re self-reinforcing. That is, you think of yourself as a gamer because you play video games all the time, and because you think of yourself as a gamer you do what you think a gamer should do and play video games all the time. Additionally it should be noted there are varying levels of personal choice involved in the establishment of these identities – you have a lot more choice to not be a gamer than you do to not be a student for example due to compulsory schooling.

Alright, so our actions influence our self-identities and our identities influence our actions and there are instances where we can directly influence both via our own conscious decisions.

So why is this important to achieving goals?

Because our self-identities are an extremely strong psychological influence on our actions. If you strongly self-identify as a vegan it would be difficult for you to force yourself to eat meat and conversely if you strongly identify as a meat lover it would be difficult for you to go without meat for an extended period of time.

Remember the quote up top? The best way to achieve a goal effortlessly is to fall in love with doing the small things you need to do to get there. If you love working out, you’ll get fit whether you want to or not. If your goal is to learn to play guitar and you love practicing so much that you want to do it all the time, you’ll find yourself a great guitarist before you know it. Now, forming habits and falling in love with an activity are difficult – particularly if conflicts with our current self-identities. By tinkering with your self-identity you can not only remove this conflict but instill a strong psychological pressure to do the thing you need to do on a regular basis to reach your goal.

Act Like the Person You Wish You Were

So how do you go about redefining your self-image? The best way is to do it gradually.

Using myself as an example, I used to strongly self-identify as a fat guy. To be fair, I was a fat guy – but I let that thinking define a large part of who I considered myself to be. As a result, I did what I thought were ‘fat guy’ things. I ate a ton, prided myself on being able to finish ridiculous portions of things, and expressed a general dislike of exercise.

Now, I also really loved parkour and martial arts. That meant that I really didn’t want to be a fat guy. The problem was it was such an entrenched part of my identity it was hard to force myself to engage in the behaviors necessary to actually be able to do all the things I wanted to do. I needed to get fit, but my habits made it hard for me to train and easy to eat tons of junk.

It wasn’t until I really started thinking of myself as a ‘fitness guy’ that I started building positive exercise habits. From there it compounded upon itself until I got to where I am now – a personal trainer who absolutely loves to train. Being a personal trainer is such a large part of my self-identity now it’s as difficult to not train as it used to be to train when I thought of myself as a fat guy.

Another good example comes from starting this blog. It was extremely hard for me at the beginning to develop the habit of writing on a regular schedule. I had a lot to say and really wanted to write – but I just couldn’t make a habit out of it.

Then I forced myself to start thinking of myself as a writer. What do writers do? They write! All the time, or at least everyday. I kept reminding myself that I was a writer, and that as a writer I needed to write something, that was what I did.

So everyday, being a writer and all, I’d sit down and write something. Maybe a paragraph, maybe a post, whatever. The point was that I wrote every single day because that was just what a writer did. Before long that developed into a strong habit, and then further reinforced my self-identification as a writer. “After all,” I could say, “look how much I’ve written over the past month! I must be a writer.”

The trick is to figure out who you want to be, and then act like that’s who you already are.

If you want to be the girl who speaks ten languages, figure out what that girl would do everyday (study, talk with language partners, watch foreign language TV) and start doing it. If you want to be the guy who’s really great at martial arts, figure out what that guy would do everyday (practice, practice and probably more practice) and then get to it. The sooner you start pretending to be the person you wish you were, the sooner you’ll wake up one morning to find that’s who you really are.

So what do you think? Have you ever tried getting to your goals by changing your identity? Do you think it would be too hard for you to pull off? Let us know in the comments.

Photo Credit: Darkmatter

How to Memorize Phrases and Vocabulary Instantly Using Music

Music by Brandon Giesbrecht

Music can be an extremely effective memorization tool.

There are a lot of things that can seem daunting for the new language learner, but few things have a reputation for being so tedious and time consuming as learning vocab.

While I’ve talked in the past about some of the things you can do to learn words from your environment, easily memorize new words, or even quickly memorize a whole list in order, I want to share one more method I like for memorizing whole sentences in just a few seconds – singing.

Tunes as Memory Hooks

I have to credit Benny from Fluent In 3 Months for the original idea for this technique. (If you’re learning a new language and haven’t been there, I highly encourage you to go check it out now.)

If you’ve ever noticed how quickly you can memorize lyrics to songs you like, or how sometimes an unwanted tune complete with lyrics can get lodged firmly in your brain without your consent – this technique works on the very same principle.

There’s something about our brains that makes us hardwired to latch onto tunes and hold onto them forever. While occasionally this can lead to frustration and self-induced head injuries (such as after accidentally hearing “Mmm Bop”) it can also be used to our advantage by hooking information we want to memorize onto those catchy tunes.

How to Memorize with Music

  1. Choose something to memorize – This technique works best for sentences, rather than individual words. This makes it really useful for people on the plane over who need to flash memorize important phrases. For our purposes we’ll choose “Where’s the bathroom?” in Japanese which is トイレはどこですか or “Toire wa doko desu ka”.
  2. Choose a tune that fits the sentence – Depending on the length of the sentence and the number of syllables, you’ll want to find a tune that has the right beat to it that is nice and catchy. Most kids tunes or nursery rhyme songs work wonderfully. The “desu” in “Toire wa doko desu ka” is pronounced more like “dess”, so a good fit given the number of syllables in this case would be the tune “Mary Had a Little Lamb“.
  3. Swap the lyrics for your sentence – Put your target language sentence that you want to memorize in wherever it fits in place of the original lyrics. In our case, we’re replacing the “Mary had a little lamb” part with our “Toire wa doko desu ka”. For the “Little lamb, little lamb” refrain part we’re putting in “Doko desu ka, doko desu ka”. We’ll get to why in a second.
  4. Sing it – Now that you’ve got your new lyrics, sing your tune! You don’t have to do it out loud if you you’re in public, but I think it helps a little. Just keep singing it over and over again in your head and pretty soon it’ll be so etched into your memory so well you’ll never have to worry about forgetting it again. While you’re singing it helps to associate some image with the tune to help you remember what the meaning of the sentence is. After all it doesn’t help if you’ve memorized “Toire wa doko desu ka” but don’t remember what it means.
  5. Refine the song – Once you’ve got the basic tune down you can sometimes use parts to reinforce grammar concepts to use in other sentences. That’s why we made the refrain part “doko desu ka, doko desu ka” which on its own means “Where is it?” Knowing that, you can change the object at the beginning with each verse. You can start with “Toire wa doko desu ka, doko desu ka, doko desu ka” then move on to “Toshokan wa doko desu ka, doko desu ka, doko desu ka” (図書館はどこですか? Where is the library?) for the next verse and so on. You can often even fit words with more syllables than really fit, such as “toshokan”, if you’re fiddle with the pacing of the song a bit.
  6. Use your sentences – When you need to ask where the bathroom is in Japanese, you’ll have no problem remembering how because that tune should pop right into your head. You don’t have to ask it melodically, but it’s easy to memorize that way. In the above example, because of how the “Where is it / doko desu ka” part is separated out you can easily apply new vocab you learn into that sentence structure to ask where something is, the song should have taught you to put it right before “doko desu ka”.

It’s as easy as that! While this technique is definitely directly useful to people who are already on their way to a foreign land and need to pick up some survival phrases quickly, it can also be used in general to memorize new sentences. I’ve even found practicing the sentences in song helps people start bridging the gap between broken, contemplative speech patterns and truly fluid, conversational delivery.

Have you used this technique in the past? Do you have any additions or tips to make it work better? Share them with us in the comments!

Photo Credit: Brandon Giesbrecht

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