How to Build Batman-Like Discipline and Willpower

Roar by Gideon Tsang

Donning a costume and yelling may also increase your willpower.

Batman’s life sucks.

It does. He has nearly unlimited wealth and freedom as Bruce Wayne and he can never enjoy it. It’s nearly impossible for him to form meaningful relationships without the fear or pain of having that person murdered as a result of their involvement with him. His days are filled with rigorous training and his nights with battles that often come very close to being fatal. He’s eternally haunted by the memory of his parents and I don’t know when he gets any sleep.

So how does he put himself through all that hell? He has serious willpower.

Think how easy it would be for him to say, “You know what? Screw this Batman thing tonight. I’m just going to sit around the mansion, watch TV and eat ice cream in my fabulously expensive pajamas.” He doesn’t though. Even when he gets sick and any normal person would take a day off of a job that doesn’t involve getting shot at he still goes out there to do what has to be done.

Beyond the bottomless pool of money that is Wayne Enterprises it’s that discipline that has enabled Bruce Wayne to become Batman.

So how do we develop discipline like that?

Defining Discipline and Willpower

Though you could probably tease out some minor differences, for now I’m going to use the terms discipline and willpower interchangeably. Boiled down to its essence willpower is the capacity to do something you don’t want to do because you know that it’s the thing that needs to be done. In most cases this involves delaying gratification and suppressing or ignoring our instinctual desires.

When you walk by the big box of donuts at the office and don’t take one even though you want to, that’s willpower. When you really want to go watch TV or play video games but force yourself to sit down and get your work done first, that’s willpower. When the alarm goes off and you would murder someone in order to sleep five more minutes but you get up and go work out, that’s willpower.

This kind of discipline is what keeps us from doing the things that we get the instant gratification from in the understanding that we will get a much bigger benefit by avoiding those behaviors. It’s what keeps Bruce Wayne in cape and cowl instead of parked in front of his Xbox.

Willpower Is a Muscle

Whenever you hear people talk about willpower or discipline you often hear people describe it like it were another invisible muscle somewhere in your body. It’s a really good way to conceptualize it – willpower really does work a lot like a muscle.

Everyone has a different strength of willpower, some are more disciplined than others naturally, practice exercises your willpower and helps you build more of it and, like your physical muscles, your willpower can only exert so much force before it’s fatigued and gives up. In fact, like all your other muscles the strength of your willpower is even affected by your health and the foods you eat.

This may sound like bad news but actually it’s really great. Understanding how our own discipline works means we can work within that system to improve it.

How to Strengthen Your Willpower

When it comes to developing a stronger sense of discipline it all revolves around that concept of treating it like a muscle. We need to remember not only to work it out, but also to make sure we don’t wear it into the ground by expecting too much from it.

  • Know Your Limits – Like all your muscles your willpower has a limited amount of energy. Once that energy is tapped your willpower isn’t going to be able to do anything until it’s had some time to rest and recover.

    Since you know this is the case, don’t set yourself up for failure. If you knew you had to move a piano on Monday night would you go do heavy deadlifts and squats Monday morning? No, you’d be spent by the time you got to the piano and you’d be useless. So don’t do the same thing with your willpower.

    If you know you have particularly weak willpower, or are going to be put in a situation where you know you’re going to have your willpower tested, don’t burn it out on little things throughout the day. If you know you’re going to have to turn down dessert later don’t spend all day walking past cookies and donuts. Eliminate the things you can that sap away little bits of discipline so that your reserves are filled for the real tests you know are coming.

  • Do Your Exercises – Studies have shown that purposefully exercising your willpower actually makes it stronger. Just like with your muscles the key is to know how to exercise it properly and to develop a plan to do so. So what are some ways you can do that?

    The easiest way is to set up controlled situations where you know you’ll be tempted by something and then exercising your discipline to avoid it. Start slow here, particularly if you know you don’t have much discipline to begin with. Pick a task you should do but never want to, like meditation, and make yourself do it for a very short time each day – maybe 5 minutes. After a while, build that up until you have the discipline to meditate for 30 minutes each day.

    Another extremely easy way is to consciously force yourself to do some little thing you’re not used to doing. For example make a commitment to not use contractions in your speech, to brush your teeth with your opposite hand or sit up more straight. It may not seem like much, but every time you make the conscious decision to do it your work out your willpower just a little and it adds up.

    Be careful though – just like with your physical muscles overtraining can lead to problems. I also wouldn’t recommend training to failure. Don’t put out a giant plate of cookies to resist all day only to push yourself too far, give up and gorge on them. Always be mindful of your limits and keep at it and you’ll see improvements.

  • Stay Fed – Your muscles need energy to function and so does your willpower. Researchers found that study participants who were put through tests exercising their willpower showed decreased blood sugar and glycogen levels as a result of the exercise. As you burn up energy flexing your discipline muscles it makes it harder and harder to keep up.

    As it turns out replenishing blood sugar and glycogen stores, with sugar water or orange juice in most of the studies, helped mitigate those effects and allowed participants to do better on subsequent tests of willpower.

    That means a couple things. The first is that if you find your willpower waning you might be able to give it a small boost by snacking on something sugary. Now if you’re trying to stick to a strict diet be careful here, that’s not an excuse to go crazy on 10 pounds of candy bars, but a little snack can help.

    Second, it means that things that tend to wear out your glycogen stores – stress, lack of sleep, illness etc. – directly deplete your ability to exercise your willpower. Use this to your advantage by going into situations where you know you’re going to have your willpower tested well-fed and rested.

    Batman of course may be the exception to this – like I said I have no idea how he finds time to get enough sleep. Once you reach equivalent levels of discipline you can skip meals and never sleep while maintaining an iron will too, until then though you should get your eight hours and take care of yourself.

  • Stay Happy – I know it’s easier said then done, but your mood also directly affects the strength of your discipline. When you’re in a good, upbeat mood your willpower is stronger and when you’re feeling depressed, upset or angry it’s a lot harder to resist doing things you shouldn’t or force yourself to do things you should.

    Thankfully, you probably don’t have to worry about maintaining a second identity or avoiding death on a nightly basis. Even so it can be a bit tough to maintain a positive attitude.

    We’ve talked about ways to stay happier in the past. A few easy ways are to consciously make yourself smile more, to learn to follow your dreams, or to give meditation a try.

    Just like with lifting, music can also give you that extra mental motivation to do what needs to be done. If you’re finding you lack the motivation to sit down and get your work done instead of wasting time on Facebook, put on some of your favorite music and rock out or dance around or whatever you need to do to get pumped. Then sit back down and get stuff done.

  • Don’t Think About Elephants – Bruce Wayne is definitely haunted by the memory of his parents. It’s part of what defines him. Instead of running from that fact and trying to suppress his anger he accepts it and redirects it into a positive thing as Batman. If he tried to deny all that hate and bottle it up it would eventually consume him.

    The same thing happens to us when we try to avoid focusing on something unpleasant – or anything really. It’s like when someone tells you, “Whatever you do, don’t think about [blank].”

    You can’t help but think about it. The harder you try to not think about it the harder it is to actually not think about it. Researchers have been doing studies on this effect for a long time and in every case the more we focus on avoiding something, the more difficult it is not to dwell on it.

    How does this tie in to willpower?

    Discipline, like we said, is the ability to either stop yourself from doing something you want to do, or making yourself do something you don’t want to do. Either way it has to do with overriding your desires. A lot of people think the best way to do that is to try to ignore them. They feel their extreme craving for a pint of ice cream and they jam their metaphorical fingers in their ears and start yelling, “I can’t hear you!”

    This doesn’t work though, for the reason we just discussed. The more you try to deny or ignore your craving for bad food or your desire to go watch TV instead of getting your work done the more irresistible it becomes.

    Instead of denying it the best course of action is to acknowledge it, decide what to do about it and move on. When you do that those desires lose their bite. Rather than ignoring your craving say, “Hmm, I really want some ice cream. I shouldn’t though, so I’ll go chop up an apple and sprinkle just a little brown sugar on it. That’ll be a lot better in the long run.”

    Think of it as Batman style mental jujutsu. By redirecting your desire to play video games and avoid work into a desire to roll up your sleeves and dominate that work so you can go play video games guilt free you take that negative emotion’s power away and make it something positive.

Being Your Own Batman

Will these techniques give you the strength of will to live like Bruce Wayne? Probably not to be honest, but I’m not certain any human could. What these techniques will do is help you build up your discipline until you can become your own personal Batman.

Being your own Batman means having the fortitude to get the things you need to get done done. It means having the willpower to stop doing all the things you need to stop and to do all the things you need to do. It means becoming strong enough to make your own life and the lives of those around you as best as you possibly can.

Have you used any of these techniques to improve your own discipline? Do you have any other techniques you’d like to add that have worked well for you? Share them in the comments!

Photo Credit: Gideon Tsang

Don’t Bench Press ’til You French Press – A Guide to Caffeine for Performance Enhancement

Black, White, Coffee by Bitzcelt

The drug of choice for millions can give you better workouts.

Caffeine is the number one most consumed drug in the world. It’s in soda, chocolate, coffee, tea, energy drinks and even a lot of herbal supplements. Most people are extremely familiar with – if not dependent on – the energy boost it provides. I know I tend to be somewhat less than peppy if I miss my morning coffee. What most people don’t know is that caffeine is an extremely effective performance enhancer for training.

If you know how and when to supplement with caffeine you can not only improve your endurance, but improve your strength output and prime your body to burn more fat during exercise than it normally would. That means you get more out of every workout for the price of a cup of coffee. Sounds good to me.

The Benefits of Caffeine

Researchers and exercise physiologists have been studying the effects of caffeine as a performance enhancer since at least 1978 and study after study has confirmed the same conclusion – it works. In fact, with all the solid data on the clear benefits of caffeine supplementation it’s a wonder it hasn’t been banned in more sports. Here are just some of the benefits caffeine offers.

Improved Endurance

The most obvious benefit to caffeine supplementation is it’s ability to improve muscular endurance. That means that you can go harder for longer without having to take a rest. Formerly it was thought this was a result of caffeine’s ability to release fat stores into the bloodstream to be used as fuel saving your muscle’s glycogen stores and allowing them to last longer. Now though research has shown caffeine also stimulates the release of calcium stored in muscle – the release of this calcium increases both endurance and overall power output.

On top of all of that, caffeine has the neurological effect of distorting your perception of exhaustion, meaning that even when your energy stores are used up your brain thinks it can keep going allowing you to push past your normal point of failure.

Regardless of how it works, researchers agree that caffeine supplementation can improve an athlete’s endurance from 5% all the way up to 25% depending on the person. A five percent increase may not sound like much, but when you’re trying to push yourself to run just a little bit farther it can make all the difference.

Increased Strength Output

When it comes to maximal strength training the best way to get stronger is to move heavy weights. The heavier weights you can move the stronger you can become and the more muscle you can build. Caffeine can help you do that more quickly by increasing the total amount you can lift.

This effect may be due to the release of fat stores and calcium that we mentioned or it may be an effect of the widening of blood vessels and increased blood oxygenation that caffeine produces – either way the result ranges from a 3% increase in strength output all the way up to an 18% increase in some studies.

To put that in perspective, for someone with a non-caffeinated 1RM bench of 200 pounds that could mean an increase of 36 pounds. That’s an impressive return for doing something as easy as downing a cup of Starbucks.

Better Fat Metabolism

More concerned about losing weight than about running farther or getting stronger? No problem, caffeine still has you covered. Caffeine stimulates the release of stored fat into the bloodstream for energy and causes the body to place a preference on using fat as energy over carbohydrates.

Best of all, this effect lasts for at least a few hours on average. That means that the increase in free flowing fatty acids is there both during your workout to fuel your efforts, and after your workout to help replace muscle glycogen stores. This means caffeine before your workout makes you burn more fat during and after that workout and may also aid in recovery.

If you’re trying to lose those last few stubborn pounds caffeine supplementation can be the thing that finally gets you past the plateau.

Beyond all of these benefits there are tons of tertiary benefits to regular caffeine consumption including lowered risk of cardiac disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s – so even if you’re not using it directly as a performance enhancer it helps keep you healthy.

A Few Precautions

Caffeine is a drug.

That means that like with any other drug there are potential side effects and dosage control is very important. Thankfully, the list of potential detriments from caffeine is relatively minor and, unless you’re pouring an entire bottle of caffeine pills down your throat, it is relatively difficult to overdose.

Blood Pressure, Increased Heart Rate & Dehydration

The first potential problem we’ll address right away is dehydration. The diuretic effects of caffeine are way, way overblown. In people who are completely unconditioned to caffeine there’s a slight diuretic effect but even this is weak enough to be insignificant in terms of increasing risk for dehydration. Be intelligent – you know when you need fluids so get them.

When it comes to increasing blood pressure and heart rate caffeine does have a slightly stronger effect but only in people who have not had caffeine for 4 to 5 days. If you have a cup of coffee everyday anyway, and have been for more than a few days, than caffeine doesn’t have any effect on your blood pressure or heart rate and won’t unless you go cold turkey for a while then reintroduce it.

If you have heart problems and hypertension and have never had a coffee or a soda in a month or two than you should be a little careful, everyone else is fine.

The best part about this conditioning is studies have shown that while the detrimental effects follow a curve of diminishing returns the benefits do not. That means if you consume some caffeine everyday you still get the full performance enhancing benefit with none of the detrimental side effects.

How to Use Caffeine to Improve Performance

Ok, so you’re convinced now right? You know you should be supplementing with caffeine to improve your workouts and you want to know how.

The first step is choosing the right source for your caffeine. Caffeine is in a lot of things nowadays and you have a lot of options. Since we’re ingesting this caffeine with the goal of using it to improve exercise performance – and therefore I assume health is important to you – we can eliminate all sugary drinks first offhand. That means no sodas, energy drinks or chocolate.

So what’re we left with? Tea, coffee and caffeine pills are the main contenders remaining. Tea has a lot of general health benefits, but it has relatively low caffeine content so I would exclude it as well. That leaves coffee and caffeine pills.

The final decision between the two comes down a lot to personal preference. Some studies have shown a statistically stronger benefit to ingesting the pure caffeine pills over the coffee, and it is much easier to control the dosage. That being said, coffee is really good – so it’s your choice.

As far as the dosages go, the general recommendation is 3 to 6 mg per kg of bodyweight. Several studies have shown benefit from dosages as low as 1 mg per kg of bodyweight though, so you may need to do a little personal experimentation and see what works best for you. The best time to ingest the caffeine is between and hour and 30 minutes prior to exercise.

An average 20 oz cup of coffee (a Venti for you Starbucks patrons) has 400 mg of caffeine, which would be more than enough for most people. A standard caffeine pill is 200 mg, meaning it also would be more than enough for anyone weighing less than 200 kg (about 440 lbs.) – so you’re covered whichever way you go.

If you’re feeling non-scientific about it 12 to 16 oz of coffee should be enough. Getting more than you need doesn’t diminish the effects, so if you like coffee you might as well go for the large or have them drop a shot of espresso in there.

You can overdose on caffeine, but that usually requires between 150 to 200 mg per kg of bodyweight in humans which translates to 80 to 100 cups of coffee for most people. It’s a little easier with caffeine pills, and some people have had problems with as little as 2 grams so don’t go crazy. Normal usage won’t have any detriments though.

So there you have it – improved endurance, strength, fat loss and tons of other benefits and all you need is a single pill or a medium cup of coffee. With all the benefits, the ease of use and the almost complete lack of negative side effects why would you not want to boost your workouts with caffeine supplementation?

Do you use caffeine regularly for the performance enhancement effects and if not do you think you’ll give it a try? Have you noticed a direct effect from it? Share your experiences in the comments!

Photo Credit: Bitzcelt

Special thanks to my father-in-law Bill for the title.

The One Reason Every Traditional Language Class Fails

Classroom Chairs by James Sarmiento

This is really not the best place to be learning a second language.

If you’ve gone through the school system or have attended a university in the U.S., chances are you’ve spent some time in a foreign language class. What’s more, unless you majored in that specific language, you probably don’t speak it all that well for having spent so much time in class. In fact most people, when asked, could barely function in the language they studied.

I was no different. At UC I took almost four years of Japanese classes. At the end of those four years I could maybe carry on a two-minute conversation in Japanese. Maybe. There would probably be a lot of ‘What does ________ mean?’s involved and the other person would have to speak slowly. Turn on a Japanese TV show or movie and I could have picked out a word or two, maybe a sentence here or there, but I was still chained to subtitles. I wasn’t alone in that. I was one of the better students in the class – no one was anywhere near fluent.

The teachers weren’t to blame either. They were fantastic. Were it not for the unconventional methods of our teachers we wouldn’t have even made it as far as we did. Not to mention none of the classes with any of the teachers hit what I would consider fluency. That suggests it wasn’t their fault.

So if all the students with all the teachers get equally poor results all the way across the board what does that mean?

It means there’s something wrong with the system.

Thankfully the thing that’s wrong is easy to figure out, primarily because it’s a standard part of all traditional language classes. Most of the class is spent in your native language.

Think about it. If you’ve ever taken language classes (and I assume if you’re in the U.S. most of you have) how much time was spent explaining new grammar points in English, going over new vocab in English and talking about homework, grades, schedules and all the other minutia of class in English? When you compare that to the minuscule amount of time you actually spend conversing in the target language in these classes it’s apparent why they never really work that well.

The same goes for the homework in most of these classes. Written homework is the most common, because it’s easiest logistically. Second comes listening practice, usually off of CDs or maybe online materials depending on the class. Last comes speaking homework, usually done in the form of preparing for presentations you have to give in class. Have you ever had a language teacher tell you to go out and chat with a native speaker for 30 minutes for homework?

So how do you mitigate the effects of this system and get the most out of your language instruction?

Make a point of speaking your target language whenever you can.

Get over any stage fright or shyness you might have about talking in front of people. It’ll only hold you back. Whenever the teacher asks something offer to answer. Even if you don’t know it, offer to answer and get corrected. Even try to answer questions they ask in English in your target language. The worst case scenario is you get it wrong, get corrected and learn something. Sure you might feel embarrassed for a minute, but at the end of the semester when you speak better than all your classmates it will have been worth it.

The next thing to do is to hunt down native speakers and practice with them whenever you can. You can use services like iTalki.com or even CouchSurfing.org to find people online or in your area to chat with. The point is to put the time in to find someone because practicing one on one with a real live native speaker will be the best thing you do to advance your ability in your target language.

Lastly, get the most out of your teacher. I don’t mean be obnoxious, but if you have questions ask. Request clarification or extra explanations about grammar. Ask if there would be better ways to say certain things. They are there to help you, so let them help you.

If you’re taking a traditional language class keep these things in mind if you really want to get the most out of it and get on your way to fluency.

Have any other tips you would add? Any other reasons you think traditional classes are effective or ineffective? Share them in the comments!

Photo Credit: James Sarmiento

How to Get Fat

Full-Figured Man by Tobyotter

If you aspire to look like this, read on.

When it comes to health related things here we tend to focus on the best ways to get leaner, faster, stronger and more fit. What if you want the opposite though? What if instead of being strong and healthy you want to be massive and riddled with health problems?

If you’re the kind of person who dreams of one day having to buy two tickets every time you fly on an airplane, than you’re in luck – I’ve put together a basic guide on how to get fat.

1. Stop Moving

The first thing you need to do if you want to get fat is stop moving so much. Obviously you should avoid exercise at all costs but that’s not always enough. You may need to go even further than that and look for as many ways as possible to move as little as possible throughout your day.

If you have a desk job then you’ve already got a good bit of your work cut out for you. Stay at your desk all day and only get up when you absolutely have to. If you must get up, try to replace the calories you’re going to burn by swinging by the break room and grabbing a doughnut or a candy bar. It’s important to take in more energy than you expend.

Once you get home, immediately plop down in front of the TV or in front of a computer and settle in. The goal here should be to only be standing for maybe ten to fifteen minutes total each day. If you think you’re standing too much keep a journal on hand and log all the time you spend standing to see if it needs to be reduced.

Remember video games, TV and the Internet all your friends here. They all let you sit and vegetate without having that nagging urge to get up and do something take over. If you don’t have access to one of those make sure to have a smartphone with you at all times so you can use it to poke around online, stare at Facebook or play a game.

2. Snack Constantly

The claim that eating multiple small meals a day will boost your metabolism has a long history within the Broscience community – thankfully there’s absolutely no truth to it. In fact, eating constantly throughout the day is an excellent tactic for the aspiring obese.

The key here is to always have something nearby that you can grab and eat mindlessly. Any time that you aren’t cramming something into your mouth is wasted time. Even if you’ve already got the sedentary thing down and are moving an absolute minimum you still need to ingest enough calories to pack on some blubber.

By making a point of always having something nearby to snack on you ensure that you have a steady surplus of calories coming in and you never have to worry about being in a deficit and losing precious pounds of pudge.

3. Choose Good Bad Foods

You can’t just snack on and eat anything you want though. Our goal is to put on weight, so you need calories, calories and more calories. That means you should avoid certain foods at all costs.

First up are vegetables. These things are nutrient dense and extremely low calorie, which means you can eat a ton of them and still not get enough calories to get fat. If you can help it, never eat vegetables. Why waste your time getting full on something when it isn’t even going to give you enough calories to get fat? It’s a waste.

Meat is a slightly better choice, but still not perfect. Sure most meats have a lot of fat in them which, at 9 calories per gram, is the highest calorie macronutrient – but it’s also full of protein which means you feel fuller and more satisfied more quickly. Again, we’re looking for something that we can get the most out of so if it makes you feel fuller sooner than it’s not a great choice.

Instead you should turn to the macronutrient specifically geared toward getting you fat – carbohydrates.

Now I’m not saying that carbs alone will make you fat, but they have some important properties that make them ideal for putting on some pounds. First of all, they tend to taste great. If it’s sweet it’s because of carbs. Secondly large doses of carbohydrates cause spikes in Insulin. Insulin then goes on to put that energy into your muscles or, if your muscles are full (perhaps from spending all day sitting in a chair), into storage as fat.

Even with Insulin doing its thing you do need to take in more calories than you burn to actually gain that fat. If you really want to maximize how much fat you’re gaining combine the Insulin generating effects of carbs with the high calorie content of fat to make sure you not only flood your system with Insulin but that at the same time you’ve got a few thousand extra calories in you.

4. Up the Portion Sizes

Getting fat requires a lot of work. Ok, not physical work, but appetite work. You need to learn that four cheeseburgers is an appetizer. Tiny portions are useless. You need to be putting away mountains of food at each meal.

A good general rule to follow is if you’re not eating double the portion that everyone else at the table is eating than your meal isn’t big enough. Don’t be afraid to go back for seconds, thirds or fourths. Even if you’ve gotten to the point where you absolutely, positively cannot eat another bite remember that there are lots of drinks that are packed with calories. If you can’t eat more, order the biggest sugariest soft drink you can find and get to work.

If you want to be fat, more is always better.

Hopefully these tips can help you if it’s your goal to get as fat as possible. If all else fails you can always find a fat mentor and ask them what they do to maintain their girth.

Have any tips on other ways to get fat quickly? Share them in the comments!

Photo Credit: We Love Cosa Rica & Tobyotter

An Admission of Failure: My Annual Review and 100th Post

100 by Chrisinplymouth

This is late in coming, but it occurred to me recently that we had missed our annual review this year. It turned out to be somewhat fortuitous though – this came out to be our official 100th post since starting Road to Epic. It seemed fitting then to have my annual review now and see where I’ve succeeded, where I’ve failed and what things I need to change for my next year on Earth.

If you have no idea what I’m talking about when I say ‘annual review’, you can find last year’s annual review here along with a quick explanation.

First, let’s look at last year’s list of goals.

Last Year’s Goals

These are some of the things I intended to accomplish before I turned 25. The ones that are stricken through are those which I actually accomplished.

Road to Epic Goals

  • Reach 4,000 unique visits per month.
  • Stick to our Tuesday/Thursday post schedule for the entire year.
  • Write at least one guest post for another blogger per month.
  • Complete and implement a custom theme for the site.
  • Finish at least three of the RtE side projects I’m considering.

Health/Fitness Goals

  • Have my bodyfat percentage tested by a reputable facility (BodPod etc.)
  • Learn to complete 5 free-standing handstand pushups.
  • Learn to deadlift at least 350 lbs.
  • Run a mile in under 5 minutes.
  • Complete one marathon.
  • Attend a Crossfit gym for at least one month.

Travel Goals

  • Spend time in at least 4 different countries before next year.
  • Return to China and Korea.
  • Spend at least two weeks in Japan, preferably one month.
  • Attend the Wik Family Reunion in Chicago.

Language Goals

  • Have at least one conversation with a native speaker per week in Korean and Japanese.
  • Finish reading the first Harry Potter book entirely in Japanese.
  • Read one entire book in Korean.
  • Re-Learn Mandarin Chinese to fluency in 6 months.
  • Learn 1,000 Mandarin Chinese words in 30 days.
  • Make a short video in either Japanese or Korean.

Financial Goals

  • Earn at least $4,000 per month off of our own projects.
  • Completely pay off our debt (minus our mortgage) which currently amounts to around $9,000.
  • Find and explore at least two new sources of income.
  • Sell at least 30 unnecessary possessions.
  • Secure an investor for one of our non-blog side projects.

Miscellaneous Goals

  • Write an entire novel in 30 days.
  • Film a Parkour video.
  • Construct a set of Sasuke/Ninja Warrior training equipment.
  • Rejoin a martial arts school.

So by the numbers, I’d say it was not a terribly successful year in terms of these goals. Out of 30 total goals I met 10 of them for a success rate of 33%. I got close on some of them, like the post schedule and Japanese practice, but I’m not counting close. I’m going to call that an overall failure. There’s nothing wrong with failing, it’s how we get better at things. So let’s start by looking at what things I did wrong.

The Mistakes

  • Loss of Focus – When I look at the goals that I was actually successful at, they’re all the ones that I set up systems to continue to track. Some of them, to be honest, I completely forgot about after a few months. Looking for investors ceased to be a goal since we decided to set that project aside, and I totally forgot my plans to refresh my Mandarin.

    The lesson learned from this is that if I’m going to accomplish the goals I set for myself I need to have reminders. Constant and persistent reminders seem to be the only way to keep me on track.

  • Missing Small Steps – One of the other problems I notice in many of the areas I failed in is I never set up small goals as stepping stones to lead to the big ones. Having these smaller goals makes a big difference, particularly if you’re like me and you tend to procrastinate on projects where the path to the goal is a little hazy in favor of ones where you know what you need to do next.

    I’m not saying that having big, ambitious goals is a bad thing. In fact I tend to prefer those kind. I think it’s best though to make sure to have clearly defined intermediate goals to build up to the big one.

  • Insufficient Discipline – I lack discipline. I really do. I’m working on it, and there have been lots of things I’ve been doing to improve my discipline, but I still don’t quite have enough of it. If I don’t keep a close eye on myself I hit the end of the week and find that all of my time has been spent reading, goofing off or playing video games and I got absolutely nothing done.

    That’s a big problem. It’s the reason we got rid of our TV. I’ve tried going completely cold turkey though and I can’t manage that either. The trick is going to be finding the right balance between work and play.

The Successes

  • Well-Tracked Fitness Goals – Fitness was one area where I was particularly successful. I credit this in large part to fitness apps like Fitocracy which make tracking a breeze. As I’m sure you’ve heard a thousand times, what gets measured gets managed. Having a clearly defined record of progress, not to mention the social and psychological boost of earning points, made sticking to my plan and reaching my goals easy.

  • Collateral Benefit – There were a lot of successes and failures that led to other tertiary benefits that I wasn’t expecting. Exploring other income sources led me to focus a lot more on my writing which led to the publishing of one of my short stories, something I intend to continue working with. Additionally all the training drastically improved my flexibility, something that wasn’t a strict goal but was definitely a benefit. In others, failure didn’t mean no gain at all. For example I may not have hit a 5 minute mile, but I got my time down from just over 10 minutes to right at seven minutes per mile. While technically a failure, it’s still a big improvement.

What I’m Changing This Year

  • Bigger But Fewer Goals – I think part of my problem was I just set too many goals and then didn’t keep track of them all. I could remedy this by having some way to remind myself of all m goals all the time, but I think it’ll be easier for me if I just pare the list down instead. For that reason I’m going to pick six big goals that I intend to accomplish before my next birthday instead of a long list.

    Having that small list should make it a lot easier for me to stay focused on my goals and not completely forget any of them like I did last year.

  • Smaller Goals Set at the Beginning of Each Month – Even though I know better, I didn’t break my big goals into small steps and then distribute them through the year. That was one of the reasons I didn’t do too well. This year I’m going to pick a handful of small steps / goals at the beginning of each month that I can complete before the end of that month that will bring me closer to my big year goals. Divide and conquer and all that.

  • Focus on Improving Discipline – Like I said before, I have some serious discipline issues. I get distracted easily and if I don’t feel like doing something I have an extremely hard time justifying doing it even though I know I should be. I waste tons and tons of time on things that don’t matter and don’t really help me in any way.

    I’m not saying I want to be a productivity zealot, I recognize that trying to make every moment as productive as possible would essentially suck all the joy out of life. There is a time and a place for fun and relaxation and not doing anything. I just do it too much. I have a handful of tactics I’m going to test out this year to see what helps me the most to resist my bad habits.

This Year’s Six Goals

  • Launch two RtE projects.
  • Reach a combined squat/deadlift/bench press of over 1,000 lbs.
  • Go on an international trip.
  • Complete six months of focused Mandarin study to get back to where I was.
  • Earn enough from side projects to be self-sufficient.
  • Write at least 5,000 words per week.

I have a lot of smaller monthly goals too, both that build up to these and that are just standalone things I want to accomplish. With the changes I’m making we’ll see if this year turns out more successful than the last.

How have you been doing on your yearly goals? Share with us in the comments!

Photo Credit: Chrisinplymouth

How We Define Fluency

Dictionaries in Class by Ijiwaru Jimbo

Everyone talks about fluency. They say this method is guaranteed to make you fluent. This course will make you fluent. This computer program is the key to fluency. Become fluent in 10 easy steps. Or maybe they’re one of the people who claim only children can reach ‘true’ fluency in a language. The thing is, no one actually takes the time to explain what fluency means!

Why is that a problem? It’s a problem because in my experience ‘fluency’ is one of those words where if you ask three people on the street what it means you’ll get five different answers. To clear up any potential confusion when we talk about fluency here, I’ve decided to explain what we mean when we say ‘fluent’.

The Flow

When you break it down, the word ‘fluent’ essentially means flowing like a liquid. It means behaving like a fluid. It means having a certain flow. This forms the primary criteria for what we consider fluency – namely, the ability to carry on a conversation in a fluid, flowing way.

What’s that mean?

It means neither you, nor anyone involved in the conversation, is seriously inconvenienced by your speaking or comprehension level. A fluent person doesn’t have to constantly be asking what words mean, or ask people to repeat themselves. They also don’t have to sit there for several minutes conjuring up the one word they need.

There are a few things to note here. The first is that fluency in no way requires literacy. In most languages literacy will develop a little along with fluency, but in some (notably Mandarin, Cantonese, Japanese and languages with similar writing systems) it’s possible to be highly fluent but completely illiterate. The second thing to notice is fluent doesn’t mean perfect.

Reject Perfectionism

There seems to be a widespread idea that you’re not fluent, or at least not really fluent unless you speak your target language perfectly. This is completely and totally untrue. People don’t even speak their native languages ‘perfectly’. For example, I’ll assume since you’re reading this your native language is English. Do you know which of these two sentences is the ‘perfect’ English sentence?

1. I wish I was able to speak another language.

2. I wish I were able to speak another language.

Native speakers will use both of these all the time. One of them, however, is technically incorrect grammatically. I say technically only because I’m a descriptive linguist and think grammar should reflect usage not dictate it, but I digress. Clearly, if native speakers can’t even be relied upon to speak perfectly how can anyone else?

Add into that all the ‘um’s and verbal space fillers, all the times people say one thing but mean something else and all the nonsensical words that are slowly absorbing into common usage like ‘irregardless’ and you come to understand that native English speakers often speak pretty poor English.

Instead of worrying about speaking perfectly, worry about speaking as much like a native as possible. You can have relatively terrible grammar, but still count as fluent in my book if you can have conversations on everyday topics with a variety of people without any significant difficulty.

Fifty Shades of Fluent

Ok, popular as they are, I feel a little cheap for having referenced those awful books. Regardless, fluency isn’t a finish line – it’s a sliding scale. A gradient. You can have two people with very different speaking levels but have both of them be considered fluent in my book.

In fact, if you look at the Common European Framework you can see that by my definition everything from a B2 up is fluent. In fact, there are probably some people in-between B1 and B2 I’d even consider fluent. The point is that a lot of levels can fit in there. You can have what I would consider basic fluency at around B1, and what I would call maybe native fluency at C2.

So if ‘fluent’ is something that applies to such a wide range of levels, and you don’t have to be perfect to be considered fluent, why should I even care about it?

Conversation Is King

The sole purpose of language is to communicate ideas, feelings and information with one another.

That’s it.

Your particular goal may vary, but for most people when you boil it down they want to learn a new language so they can talk to new people. If your goal is to talk to people, then fluency is really the only goal. You don’t have to be perfect, you just have to be able to get your ideas across and understand theirs without dragging the whole process to a halt.

Whether you’re B1 or C2, if you’re fluent you can have spontaneous conversations and if you can do that then mission accomplished.

How to Get There

There are lots of ways to get to fluency, the trick is to start today and don’t stop. You can try one of these three language learning methods, you can find some native listening material to practice with, try out some of these free online language learning resources or start out from the very beginning.

The point is to find something you like, start it and don’t stop until you get there!

Have anything you’d like to add? Is your definition of fluency different, or do you agree with ours? Let us know in the comments!

P.S. If you were wondering, sentence number 2 is technically grammatically correct.

Photo Credit: Ijiwaru Jimbo

Weaving Zen: A Life Lesson Learned from Knitting

Knitting Together by Kalexanderson

I too only knit in full Stormtrooper armor.

Have you ever been so frustrated, so infuriated, by a task that seems to be absolutely impossible that you want to hurl something heavy through the nearest window and put your fist through the wall?

That was me the first time I tried knitting.

Every loop, every stitch, I fought for tooth and nail. I’d struggle and push and work the needle in just to have it poke through the center of the yarn. No matter what I did I couldn’t get the needle through the right loop. When I finally did, the whole thing was too tight for me to pull the yarn through to make the stitch.

After probably close to an hour of fighting with those cursed needles all I had to show for my struggles were a few inches of hideously woven yarn and sufficient amounts of rage to boil water on my forehead.

I was beginning to think I was just not cut out for knitting.

That’s when I made the best decision I possibly could. I gave up.

Learning to Relax

Not gave up like quit, but gave up like quit caring. I remembered what I’d learned a decade ago playing Mario Kart. I relaxed.

It made an incredible difference. After unraveling the unholy abomination I’d previously crafted I started over, this time not caring so much that I did everything so perfectly.

Chaining on was a piece of cake. Actually knitting and purling was even easier. Within ten minutes I had a square of woven yarn twice the size of my previous creation and it actually looked nice.

Relaxing made all the difference in the world.

It made me realize that our moods and attitudes have a profound effect on our performance of day to day activities, even things that we wouldn’t expect. I was so frustrated and uptight about my difficulties knitting that I was making every stitch super tight – which just made everything exponentially more difficult for me. When I loosened up, so did my knitting.

I’ve heard other people describe similar situations with other skills. For example, while I’m not a shooter I’ve heard plenty people tell me that the biggest mistake most people make when they’re learning to shoot is being way too tense. They don’t start improving and doing well until they learn to relax.

This principle applies to the rest of our lives too. If you’re too uptight and stressed all the time you make everything you do exponentially more difficult. Conversely, everything you do will come a little bit easier if you learn to do it with a relaxed, mindful attitude.

Practicing Mindful Relaxation

The first step in applying this principle to the rest of your life is to learn how to be relaxed and mindful in the first place.

The easiest place to begin is by finding something that you can focus on in a simple, calm and mindful way. As it turns out, knitting works very well. There is a basic zen aspect to knitting in its repetitiveness, and if your mind starts to wander or you begin to become to frustrated it will quickly be reflected in your work.

Knitting well demands you be attentive but relaxed, mindful of what you’re doing but not rigid. It’s essentially like doing kata in a martial art, practicing yoga or lifting weights.

Incidentally, those are two other very good options for things you can practice to help learn the skill of mindful relaxation. Anything that you can do that requires your full, alert and relaxed attention is a good choice.

Once you’ve chosen your activity, you need to start practicing it!

Not just mindlessly though. The goal here is to strengthen your ability to be calm, relaxed and present. How do you do that?

To start with, you need to be happy. At least a little. If you’re finding that hard, force yourself to smile a little bit. Even if it’s a fake one, it can help cheer you up a bit.

Second, you need to be focused. Don’t let your mind wander. Don’t think about what you have to do later. Don’t worry about all the bills. You are doing one thing right now and nothing else. All of your focus is on that thing, nothing in the world exists but that thing.

Be careful, because some people tend to get a little tense when they focus that hard. Don’t think of it like concentrating, this isn’t like cramming last minute for a test the next day. You just want to let all the distractions and worries fade away until all that’s left is what you’re doing right now. Practicing a little meditation may help.

Get comfortable in that mindset and let it stay as long as you can. As distractions or other thoughts come up, brush them away again. Maybe smile a little more. At this point you should be feeling not so much a sense of fun, but a sense of peace.

Hold onto that feeling. That’s what you want to cultivate.

When you’re finished with your activity, wrap up comfortably and go about your day, but remember that feeling.

All throughout the rest of your day try to call that feeling back up. When you’re at work, or doing the dishes, call that feeling back up. Smile a little, and let yourself be relaxed and peaceful and in the moment.

Pretty soon, you’ll find that you can call that feeling up at will. Once you can do that, learn to bring it up as an automatic response anytime you feel yourself getting frustrated or angry.

Once you can do that, you’ll find day to day tasks getting easier, life won’t feel quite so stressful anymore, and you’ll likely see a gigantic boost in productivity.

All of that, just from knitting.

Have you tried any of these mindfulness techniques in the past? What did you think? Do you agree that things come easier when you’re relaxed, or do you succeed more when fueled by stress? Share with us in the comments!

Photo Credit: Kalexanderson

Defining Minimalism

I want to be where your heart is home by Janine

Minimalism isn’t about empty space, it’s about full experiences.

When I mention to people that we’re minimalists the responses tend to fall into one of two categories. The first category involves people giving me looks like I just told them I habitually stomp on kittens and wondering aloud how can I live without item X, usually television.

The second group involves haughty scoffing and being told that we’ll never be True Minimalists ™ until we can fit all our worldly possessions into a single carry-on bag.

Both of these groups suffer from the same problem. They just don’t know what minimalism really is – at least not to us. I’d like to fix that.

Minimalism as a Tool

Minimalism is not a doctrine, or a club. You can’t apply for a minimalist card and there aren’t rules you have to follow to call yourself a minimalist. Minimalism is a tool.

Sometimes minimalism is a razor that you use to carefully cut the excess things from your life, other times it’s a lens through which to view the world in order to better make decisions, other times still it may be a fire hose to blast away the grime and muck years spent in a materialist culture have caked onto your lifestyle.

I already know this is going to surprise some people and anger others, but it’s a misconception to believe that you have to own very few things to be minimalist. For reasons we’ll touch on shortly most people do go down that road, but it’s not in any way a requirement. It’s entirely possible to own a car, a house, a TV and lots of other stuff and still be a minimalist.

Defining Minimalism

So if getting rid of all of your stuff isn’t necessarily a requirement for minimalism, how do we define it?

Minimalism to us is an attitude. In a society that tries its hardest to make us define ourselves by our possessions minimalism makes us take a step back and ask if the things we own are genuinely necessary to leading a fulfilled life.

At its core minimalism is a way of focusing on quality over quantity and objectively determining priorities.

That means that it’s not a competition. You’re not getting any points for being ‘more minimalist’ than someone else, and being minimalist for minimalism’s sake completely defeats the purpose. If you’re doing it for any reason other than to improve your own life, you’re doing it wrong.

That also means minimalist living for me is going to look different from minimalist living for you which will look different from minimalist living for someone else.

Minimalism doesn't have to look like this.

Minimalism doesn’t have to look like this.

How to Apply Minimalism to Your Life

The easiest area of life to improve – and consequently the area most people get hung up on when talking about minimalism – is that of your possessions.

In most developed countries and particularly in the United States there is an enormous amount of societal pressure to acquire more and better things. We’re encourage to rank and judge each other by what kind of car we drive, how big our house is and whether or not we’ve got the latest clothes and gadgets.

For a lot of people this system doesn’t exactly lead to a fulfilled, meaningful life. In fact for all the cool stuff we have nowadays one of the complaints most people have is a general feeling of purposelessness.

Minimalism can help you find your purpose by removing all the things that aren’t adding any real value to your life so you can focus more on the things that are.

A good way to start is to look at each thing you own individually and ask yourself if you really need it. You have to really be honest with yourself here, particularly since the fear of losing something is a lot stronger psychologically than any pain of its absence and it will be easy to convince yourself you might die if you throw out that CD collection you haven’t touched in ten years.

Once you get used to looking at everything you own and asking, “Do I really need this?” You can start applying the same principles to other areas of your life.

Advanced Minimalism

That minimalist razor isn’t just for use on your possessions. You can apply the same attitude to your habits, your goals, your work and just about every other aspect of your life.

We’ll start with your habits. Look at your daily routine and ask yourself with each thing you do, “Is that really something that will make me happier?”

It’s easy to spend hours and hours each day watching TV, paying video games or aimlessly poking around the Internet but is there something else you could be doing that would add more overall enjoyment to your life?

What about your goals?

I know one of my personal faults is I tend to be overly ambitious. There are so many things that I want to accomplish I frequently get tied up in knots trying to work toward all of them all at once. By going down your list of goals and ruthlessly paring away the ones that won’t have the biggest impact on your life you leave substantially more time to focus on the ones that will make the most difference.

Some Pitfalls to Avoid

The biggest problem I see is a lack of self-honesty.

The many faces of minimalism means that, even though I may not see the value in it, if you honestly would lead a less fulfilled life without your extensive collection of My Little Pony memorabilia than so be it – you are free to continue your Brony ways.

We get into trouble though when people delude themselves into thinking that way around things that aren’t really making them happier. Distinguishing between the genuine personal necessity of an item and the extreme fear of losing something can be very difficult.

Another problem I see a lot is people pursuing minimalism for the wrong reasons. Sometimes these people are well-meaning, other times they’re pompous jerks who just want another reason to assert moral superiority or compete with others.

Regardless of the motivations if you get into minimalism for the wrong reasons it can easily make you more miserable instead of more happy. While I think applying minimalist principles can make most people happy, I recognize it’s not for everyone. Some people are really happier surrounded by stuff they don’t need.

The key again (this should seem like a recurring theme by now) is to take the time to consider what would really make you happy and then follow that path – minimalist or not.

Do you agree with our definition? Do you think we completely missed the mark? Let us know in the comments!

Photo Credit: Janine, Practical Owl

Our First Experience with Couchsurfing

Sand Storm by Stephan Geyer

Thankfully our couch was much better situated than this one.

I’ve always been a big fan of Couchsurfing as a language learning resource for finding native speakers of your target language without having to leave your own city. A few weeks ago though we finally got to use it for its original intended purpose – travel – and for anyone who hasn’t heard of it yet I wanted to introduce you to it and share a bit about out own experience.

What’s Couchsurfing?

While ‘couch surfing’ is a general term for staying overnight on someone’s couch, when I say ‘Couchsurfing’ I’m specifically referring to Couchsurfing.org – a non-profit social networking service with the goal of connecting travelers and hosts from all over the world.

Simplifying things a bit, Couchsurfing essentially lets you either stay at another person’s home for free or allow others to stay at your home for free. There’s no obligation to host people and when traveling you get to choose whom you stay with (though the host always has final say on accepting or denying travelers). While ostensibly the purpose of Couchsurfing is to provide travelers with a free place to stay, the real purpose of the community is to bring people from all over the world together to spread cultural awareness and learning.

Rather than go into all the specifics of how Couchsurfing works, how they handle the issue of safety or how to sign up (topics about which volumes have already been written) I’m just going to send you over to the Couchsurfing.org About Page.

Our First Couchsurfing Experience

Being familiar with Couchsurfing but having never used it to travel, we decided to dive right in and give it a try for our recent trip to Chicago. We had a family reunion on the weekend and wanted to stay in Chicago for a full week beforehand to do our own sightseeing and experience the city.

There are two ways to find hosts on Couchsurfing, you can either post an itinerary and hosts can send you offers or you can seek out specific hosts and send them individual requests. We chose to do the former, posting our itinerary almost a month before we were schedule to leave. To my surprise, a host offered us a place to stay the very next day.

I’ll call him ‘D’ here instead of using his name to respect his privacy. D said he would love to host us, so we checked out his profile. He was a verified member, had over 30 positive references and 0 negative ones, had been vouched for and had tons of pictures up – all indicators of a good person to stay with.

D is in his late 60s, breaking the stereotype that a majority of the people on Couchsurfing are very young, and has an apartment right in the heart of the Loop only a few blocks from Millennium Park. A hotel in the same area easily could have cost us over $200 a night. In addition to all of that, he told us he could get us free parking for a week at his weekend job. If you’ve ever been to Chicago you know free parking is kind of a big deal.

D’s hospitality while we were there was staggering. The first thing he did was give us a key to his apartment and then took us grocery shopping where he insisted that he buy us whatever groceries we would like for the week. He loved showing us around the city, and gave us an extensive tour. Through the week he treated us to two meals and showed us around to several other places.

Beyond all of that, the best part of the whole experience was getting to meet and hang out with someone new. D not only seemed to know everyone in Chicago but had a plethora of stories – about the city, his past Couchsurfing experiences and his childhood in Ireland.

The Bottom Line

Our first experience with Couchsurfing was overwhelmingly positive. I’m already looking forward to our next trip and intend to open our own home up to travelers here in Cincinnati. While the surface benefit of Couchsurfing is saving money by not paying for accommodations the real spirit of it is so much more than that. Even if you only stay with someone for a night I highly recommend giving Couchsurfing a try – 9 times out of 10 you don’t just get somewhere to stay, you get a new friend.

Have you used Couchsurfing in the past? Did you have a good first experience or a not so good one? Share your stories in the comments!

Photo Credit: Stephan Geyer

Learn Languages Better with Short Study Sessions

Stopwatch by Wwarby

When it comes to language learning, sometimes shorter can be better.

If there’s one thing I hate, it’s feeling like I’ve wasted time.

Now that doesn’t mean I have to be productive 24/7, I consider having fun or relaxing valuable uses of my time in most cases – I just hate working hard toward a goal and feeling like I have nothing to show for it.

When it comes to language learning that trait used to make me a huge perfectionist. If I was going to spend a few hours on Anki trying to learn 30 new words for the day I needed to really know them at the end of it or I would feel like all that time doing SRS reps was a waste. To be fair I understand it wasn’t, but it was still kind of discouraging nonetheless setting out to learn 30 words and only remembering 20 or so the next day.

Then I figured out the trick to learning more effectively and keeping myself motivated – short, targeted study sessions.

The Benefits of Brief Language Learning Sessions

Motivation – I noticed that if, instead of trying to do a massive amount of studying in one go, if I just sat down to learn 10 words instead of 30 I could get all of them without any problem. Even if it’s something as minor as learning a small handful of words the fact that I could consistently achieve the goals that I set had a surprisingly strong motivational effect. It also boosted my confidence and made me eager to go study each day.

Retention – Of course you might say 20 words out of 30 per day is still better than 10 out of 10. That would be true if I stopped there, but once my motivation was back I started adding more brief study sprints. If I broke up the words into ten in the morning, ten in the afternoon and ten at night I could learn all 30 with no problem and spend less time overall to do it. I’m assuming something about the study sessions being in smaller, more digestible chunks helps me handle the volume of new information better.

Avoiding Burnout – Maybe this should be lumped under motivation, but I think it’s important enough to get its own category. In the same way that timeboxing helps you to go complete tasks you really don’t want to do, breaking study sessions up helps you work on language learning even when you don’t feel like it. When you know you’ve only got ten words to learn and then you’re done, it’s hard to justify blowing it off no matter how out of it or demotivated you feel.

Maintaining Focus – When you dive in to study a huge volume of stuff all at once, there’s a tendency for most people to wander. I see it all the time at commercial gyms when people contract ‘screwarounditis’ – they drift aimlessly from machine to machine, do a few reps of each and leave. Whether it’s exercise or language learning when people come into something without a concrete plan and are presented with a million options for what to do they often just screw around. By having tightly restricted study sessions with a clear goal you avoid this bad habit and maximize the efficiency of your learning periods.

The Caveat

It would be irresponsible of me to suggest you study less and not mention the one caveat – non-study learning time.

I say this because I’m worried some people will look at this and take it as an excuse to study less. That’s not the point. In terms of effort and reward you still get out whatever you put in. Having shorter, more efficient study sessions is a great way to maximize your return on that effort, but it won’t get you all the way to fluency unless you combine it with countless hours of non-study learning time.

What do I mean by that? I mean all the time you can pack in where you are experiencing or using the language but not actively studying it. Watching TV or movies, reading, listening to music or chatting with friends in your target language are all good examples. That time, where you actually use what you learned in the study sessions, is key if you want to be conversant.

Do you prefer shorter study sessions or longer ones? Do you have any other tips or benefits to it that I missed? Share them with us in the comments!

Photo Credit: Wwarby